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Research Papers

Effects of Downstream Vane Bowing and Asymmetry on Unsteadiness in a Transonic Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
John P. Clark

Mem. ASME
Turbomachinery Branch,
Turbine Engine Division,
Aerospace Systems Directorate,
Air Force Research Laboratory,
1950 5th Street,
WPAFB, OH 45433
e-mail: john.clark.38@us.af.mil

Richard J. Anthony, Michael K. Ooten, John M. Finnegan

Mem. ASME
AFRL/RQTT,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433

P. Dean Johnson

FTT America,
Jupiter, FL 33458
ASME Member

Ron-Ho Ni

Mem. ASME
AeroDynamic Solutions, Inc.,
Danville, CA 94526

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 16, 2018; final manuscript received July 20, 2018; published online September 28, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Turbomach 140(10), 101006 (Sep 28, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4040998 History: Received July 16, 2018; Revised July 20, 2018

Accurate predictions of unsteady forcing on turbine blades are essential for the avoidance of high-cycle-fatigue issues during turbine engine development. Further, if one can demonstrate that predictions of unsteady interaction in a turbine are accurate, then it becomes possible to anticipate resonant-stress problems and mitigate them through aerodynamic design changes during the development cycle. A successful reduction in unsteady forcing for a transonic turbine with significant shock interactions due to downstream components is presented here. A pair of methods to reduce the unsteadiness was considered and rigorously analyzed using a three-dimensional (3D), time-resolved Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The first method relied on the physics of shock reflections itself and involved altering the stacking of downstream components to achieve a bowed airfoil. The second method considered was circumferentially asymmetric vane spacing which is well known to spread the unsteadiness due to vane-blade interaction over a range of frequencies. Both methods of forcing reduction were analyzed separately and predicted to reduce unsteady pressures on the blade as intended. Then, both design changes were implemented together in a transonic turbine experiment and successfully shown to manipulate the blade unsteadiness in keeping with the design-level predictions. This demonstration was accomplished through comparisons of measured time-resolved pressures on the turbine blade to others obtained in a baseline experiment that included neither asymmetric spacing nor bowing of the downstream vane. The measured data were further compared to rigorous post-test simulations of the complete turbine annulus including a bowed downstream vane of nonuniform pitch.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Unsteady interaction between a transonic turbine blade and a downstream vane that is consistent with a counter-rotating LPT. Colorization by instantaneous static pressure highlights the shocks, whereas contours of entropy rise indicate shear layers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Downstream vane stacking configurations ((a)–(d)) assessed in this study. The view is nominally aft-looking-forward, and the colorization is the DFT magnitude of the fundamental upstream passing frequency: (a) baseline, (b) initial bowed, (c) reverse bowed, and (d) final bowed.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

DFT magnitudes on the blade suction side at the first harmonic of the downstream vane passing frequency for the vane stacking configurations (a-d) assessed: (a) baseline, (b) initial bowed, (c) reverse bowed, and (d) final bowed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

DFT phase angles on the blade suction side at the first harmonic of the downstream vane passing frequency for the (a) baseline and (b) final bowed vane configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Overall unsteadiness on the blade suction side for (a) baseline and (b) asymmetric vanes as indicated by the local mean-square of unsteady pressure fluctuations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Percentage of the overall mean-square unsteadiness due to frequencies associated with shock reflections for (a) baseline and (b) asymmetric vanes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

DFT magnitudes on the blade suction side at the first harmonic of the downstream passing frequencies for the baseline symmetric (a) and asymmetric vane configurations ((b)–(d)): (a) baseline 46E, (b) asymmetric 46E, (c) 44E, and (d) 48E

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The downstream vane ring used for experimental verification of design changes including both bowing and asymmetric spacing, presented as (a) an engineering drawing and (b) a view of the instrumented hardware

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

DFT magnitudes on the blade suction side at the first harmonic of the downstream passing frequencies for the baseline (a) and bowed, asymmetric vane configurations ((b)–(d)) at experimental conditions: (a) baseline 46E, (b) bowed asymmetric 46E, (c) bowed asymmetric 44E, and (d) bowed asymmetric 48E

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

A comparison of measured and simulated DFT magnitudes on the blade suction side at frequencies around the first harmonic of the downstream passing frequencies for the Baseline and Bowed, Asymmetric vane configurations

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