Research Papers

Influence of Blade Loading Profile on Wake Dynamics in High-Pressure Turbine Cascades

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin T. Luymes, Qiang An

Institute for Aerospace Studies,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON M3H 5T6, Canada

Adam M. Steinberg

Institute for Aerospace Studies,
University of Toronto,
Toronto, ON M3H 5T6, Canada
e-mail: adam.steinberg@gatech.edu

Xuefeng Zhang, Thomas Vandeputte

Global Research Center,
General Electric,
Niskayuna, NY 12309

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 10, 2018; final manuscript received July 31, 2018; published online September 28, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(10), 101004 (Sep 28, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1153; doi: 10.1115/1.4041141 History: Received July 10, 2018; Revised July 31, 2018

The influences of blade loading profile on wake convection and wake/wake interaction were studied in two different blade designs for high-pressure (HP) turbines (front-loaded (FL) and aft-loaded (AL)), installed in linear cascades. A high-speed moving bar (HSMB) apparatus replicated wake shedding, and a closed loop wind tunnel produced engine-relevant Mach numbers (Ma = 0.7) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 3 × 105). The FL blades had approximately 10% greater total pressure loss when operated with unsteady wake passage. Phase conditioned particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were made in the aft portion of the blade channel and downstream of the blade trailing edge. The turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in the wake was approximately 30% higher for the FL blades when the wake entered the measurement field-of-view. The pressure field in the upstream region of the FL blade design is believed to induce high magnitude strain rates—leading to increased TKE production—and more aggressively turn and dilate the unmixed wake—leading to increased mixing related losses. The higher TKE for the FL blades largely dissipated, being approximately equal to the AL wake by the time the wake reached the end of the blade passage. The interaction of the convected wake with the wake from the blade trailing edge caused periodic vortex shedding at the second harmonic of the convected wake frequency. This interaction also modulated the strength of the trailing edge wake. However, little difference was found in the modulation amplitudes between different cases due to similar strengths of the convected wakes in this region. The higher wake TKE in the upstream portion of the blade channel for the FL blades, therefore, is expected to be the cause of the higher total pressure loss.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Wakes , Blades , Convection
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Meyer, R. X. , 1958, “ The Effect of Wakes on the Transient Pressure and Velocity Distributions in Turbomachines,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 80, pp. 1544–1552.
Hodson, H. P. , 1998, “ Bladerow Interactions in Low Pressure Turbines,” Blade Row Interference Effects in Axial Turbomachinery Stages (VKI Lecture Series No. 1998-02), Von Karman Institute, Brussels, Belgium.
Hodson, H. P. , and Dawes, W. N. , 1998, “ On the Interpretation of Measured Profiles Losses in Unsteady Wake-Turbine Blade Interaction Studies,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(2), pp. 276–284. [CrossRef]
Stieger, R. D. , and Hodson, H. P. , 2005, “ The Unsteady Development of a Turbulent Wake Through a Downstream Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Passage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(2), pp. 388–394. [CrossRef]
Schulte, V. , and Hodson, H. P. , 1994, “ Wake-Separation Bubble Interaction in Low Pressure Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 1994-2931.
Schulte, V. , and Hodson, H. P. , 1998, “ Unsteady Wake-Induced Boundary Layer Transition in High Lift LP Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(1), pp. 28–35. [CrossRef]
Stieger, R. D. , and Hodson, H. P. , 2004, “ The Transition Mechanism of Highly Loaded LP Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(4), pp. 536–543. [CrossRef]
Orth, U. , 1992, “ Unsteady Boundary-Layer Transition in Flow Periodically Disturbed by Wakes,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-283.
Zhang, X.-F. , and Hodson, H. P. , 2009, “ Effects of Reynolds Number and Freestream Turbulence Intensity on the Unsteady Boundary Layer Development on an Ultra-High-Lift Low Pressure Turbine Airfoil,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(1), p. 011016. [CrossRef]
Simoni, D. , Berrino, M. , Ubaldi, M. , Zunino, P. , and Bertini, F. , “ Off-Design Performance of a Highly Loaded Low Pressure Turbine Cascade Under Steady and Unsteady Incoming Flow Conditions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(7), p. 071009. [CrossRef]
Göttlich, E. , Woisetschläger, J. , Pieringer, P. , Hampel, B. , and Heitmeir, F. , 2005, “ Investigation of Vortex Shedding and Wake-Wake Interaction in a Transonic Turbine Stage Using Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry and Particle-Image-Velocimetry,” ASME J. Turbomach., 128(1), pp. 178–187. [CrossRef]
Hummel, F. , 2001, “ Wake-Wake Interaction and Its Potential for Clocking in a Transonic High-Pressure Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(1), pp. 69–76. [CrossRef]
Tiedemann, M. , and Kost, F. , 2000, “ Some Aspects of Wake-Wake Interactions Regarding Turbine Stator Clocking,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123(3), pp. 526–533. [CrossRef]
Praisner, T. J. , Clark, J. P. , Nash, T. C. , Rice, M. J. , and Grover, E. A. , 2006, “ Performance Impacts Due to Wake Mixing in Axial-Flow Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90666.
Steinberg, A. M. , Boxx, I. , Stöhr, M. , Carter, C. D. , and Meier, W. , 2010, “ Flow-Flame Interactions Causing Acoustically Coupled Heat Release Fluctuations in a Thermo-Acoustically Unstable Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 157(12), pp. 2250–2266. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Representative blade geometries and Mach number distributions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental facility, consisting of linear cascade and high-speed moving bar apparatus within the closed-loop wind tunnel at GE Global Research Center. The exploded box shows the blade cascade and the wake generating bars at the leading edge.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of TKE Production levels with the alignment of principal stresses and strain rates for AL blade geometry, phase 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Phase-conditioned reduced vorticity with superimposed perturbation velocity vectors at a fixed phase of the trailing edge vortex shedding at Re = 3 × 105. Other trailing edge phases were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. (a) AL geometry and (b) FL geometry.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Integral comparison of turbulent properties between test conditions. Values are averaged over the cascade wake period and the mean over the convected wake period is subtracted from each phase to show fluctuations: (a) strain rate magnitude, (b) TKE production, and (c) TKE.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Turbulent kinetic energy levels within the blade channels during transient wake convection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Production of TKE within the blade channels during transient wake convection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Transient wake passage through both blade cascades at a Reynolds number of Re = 3 × 105. Top row: perturbation velocity, up|i. Middle row: TKE, K|i. Bottom row: TKE production, P|i.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In