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Research Papers

Effects of Coolant Feed Direction on Additively Manufactured Film Cooling Holes

[+] Author and Article Information
Curtis K. Stimpson

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Dr,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: curtis.stimpson@honeywell.com

Jacob C. Snyder

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Dr,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: jacob.snyder@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
136 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@psu.edu

Dominic Mongillo

Pratt & Whitney,
400 Main Street,
East Hartford, CT 06118
e-mail: dominic.mongillo@pw.utc.com

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Honeywell, 111 S. 34th St. Phoenix, AZ 85034.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 8, 2018; final manuscript received August 27, 2018; published online October 8, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(11), 111001 (Oct 08, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1191; doi: 10.1115/1.4041374 History: Received August 08, 2018; Revised August 27, 2018

Gas turbine components subjected to high temperatures can benefit from improved designs enabled by metal additive manufacturing (AM) with nickel alloys. Previous studies have shown that the impact on fluid flow and heat transfer resulting from surface roughness of additively manufactured parts is significant; these impacts must be understood to design turbine components successfully for AM. This study improves understanding of these impacts by examining the discharge coefficient and the effect of the coolant delivery direction on the performance of additively manufactured shaped film cooling holes. To accomplish this, five test coupons containing a row of baseline shaped film cooling holes were made from a high-temperature nickel alloy using a laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process. Flow and pressure drop measurements across the holes were collected to determine the discharge coefficient from the film cooling holes. Temperature measurements were collected to assess the overall effectiveness of the coupon surface as well as the cooling enhancement due to film cooling. The Biot number of the coupon wall was matched to a value one might find in a turbine engine to ensure this data is relevant. It was discovered that the flow experienced greater aerodynamic losses in film cooling holes with greater relative roughness, which resulted in a decreased discharge coefficient. The effectiveness measurements showed that the film cooling performance is better when coolant is fed in a co-flow configuration compared to a counter-flow configuration.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Test coupon features and dimensions

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Fig. 2

Coupon orientation during build showing vertical build direction and angled build direction

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Fig. 3

Test rig from Stimpson et al. [5] used for this study

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Fig. 4

Discharge coefficient of EDM and AM coupons where Ma = 0 and Mai < 0.1

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Fig. 5

Micrographs of film cooling holes (a) at 2× scale made in the vertical build direction, (b) 2× scale made in the horizontal build direction, and (c) 1× scale drilled with EDM

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Fig. 6

Discharge coefficient, Cd, of EDM and 2× vertical coupon with compared to Cd of a fan-shaped hole from Gritsch et al. [27]

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Fig. 7

Overall effectiveness of 2× vertical coupon at Rei = 14,000 with M = 0.0 (a,b) and M = 1.0 (c,d)

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Fig. 8

Cross-sectional view of 2× coupon showing x/D scale relative to coupon features

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Fig. 9

Augmented area-averaged effectiveness as a function of blowing ratio for 1× coupons

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Fig. 10

Augmented area-averaged effectiveness as a function of blowing ratio for the 2× coupons

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Fig. 11

Augmented area-averaged effectiveness as a function of the ratio of mass flux of the mainstream to mass flux from the coupon surface

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