Research Papers

Stall Inception in a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Perovic

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: dp420@cam.ac.uk

C. A. Hall

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: cah1003@cam.ac.uk

E. J. Gunn

Turbostream Ltd,
3 Charles Babbage Road,
Cambridge CB3 0GT, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received February 11, 2019; final manuscript received April 26, 2019; published online June 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(9), 091007 (Jun 12, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-19-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4043644 History: Received February 11, 2019; Accepted April 26, 2019

Jet engines with boundary layer ingestion (BLI) could offer significant reductions in aircraft fuel burn compared with podded turbofans. However, the engine fans must run continuously with severe inlet distortion, which is known to reduce stability. In this paper, an experimental study has been completed on a low-speed rig fan operating with a BLI-type inlet distortion. Unsteady casing static pressure measurements have been made at multiple locations during stall events. Steady-state, full-annulus area traverses have also been performed at rotor inlet and exit at a near-stall operating point. The reduction in stability caused by BLI is found to be small. It is found that with BLI the fan can operate stably despite the presence of localized regions where the rotor operating point lies beyond the stability boundary measured in clean flow. With the BLI-type distortion applied, the measured rotor incidence varies around the annulus due to nonuniform upstream velocity and swirl. The measured amplitude of unsteady casing pressure fluctuations just prior to stall is found to correlate with the circumferential variation of rotor incidence, suggesting that rotor incidence is a key variable affecting the creation and growth of flow disturbances. In regions of high incidence, disturbances resembling local flow separations are initiated. However, in regions of low or negative incidence, any disturbances decay rapidly. Full rotating stall with BLI occurs when high incidence regions are widespread enough to sustain disturbances which can propagate around the entire annulus.

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Fig. 1

Meridional view of the BLI fan rig

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Fig. 2

Measured inlet axial velocity profile at station 1 at the design operating point and angle sign convention

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Fig. 3

Clean flow total-to-static pressure rise characteristic and key operating conditions

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Fig. 4

Photograph of the fan rotor showing the unsteady pressure probe locations

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Fig. 5

Contour of casing static pressure at DPc

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Fig. 6

Stall inception in clean flow: raw signal (above), low-pass filtered signal at 90% fbp (below)

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Fig. 7

Spectrogram of a casing static pressure signal around a stall event

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Fig. 8

Cumulative energy content of a casing pressure signal before, during, and after stall. Value at frequency f shows total energy in the range [0, f].

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Fig. 9

Fourier transform from pressure transducers at one of the circumferential locations

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Fig. 10

Spectrograms of casing static pressure signals at DPd

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Fig. 11

Pressure waveforms, stall inception at NSd. Dashed lines show propagations of spikes.

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Fig. 12

Spectrograms of casing static pressure signals around a stall event in distorted flow

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the incidence relative to the NSc incidence level, disturbances energy, and the signals' standard deviations. Crosses show data from individual measurements, and averages are shown as solid lines.

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Fig. 14

Axial velocity contours (station 3): (a) axial velocity (DPd) and (b) axial velocity (NSd)

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Fig. 15

Absolute swirl angle upstream of the rotor (station 3): (a) swirl (DPd) and (b) swirl (NSd)

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Fig. 16

Incidence relative to incidence at NSc (station 3): (a) incidence (DPd) and (b) incidence (NSd)

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Fig. 17

Stall cell development, (a) waveforms, (b) schematic of early stall cell propagation, (c) stall cell size as a function of time

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Fig. 18

Axial velocity downstream of the rotor (station 4): (a) axial velocity (DPd) and (b) axial velocity (NSd)



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