A Study of Stall in a Low Hub–Tip Ratio Fan

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Soundranayagam

The National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride, Glasgow, Scotland

R. L. Elder

Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford, England

J. Turbomach 115(1), 10-16 (Jan 01, 1993) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2929194 History: Received February 04, 1992; Online June 09, 2008


An investigation has been carried out in order to define the process of rotating stall inception in a low-speed, low hub–tip ratio fan. Based on elementary cascade analysis, the fan would be expected to stall from the root. However, considerable experimental evidence indicates that tip stall is more frequently incurred. Although the analysis has been undertaken for a specific fan, it is considered to be representative of a broad range of machines. The analysis has involved two primary considerations, first the effect of streamtube contraction, which has been studied theoretically, and second, real flow effects (those not contained in the theoretical model), which have been studied experimentally. The study of streamtube contraction indicates that the root rematches to a more stable operating point, thus alleviating some of the problems in that region. The experimental investigation was undertaken on an isolated rotor, with successive build modifications to increase the likelihood of rotating stall inception at the root. It was apparent that real fluid effects tended to steepen the root pressure rise characteristic, thus enhancing the stability in that region. The performance of the fan at the tip tended to be poor, providing a pressure characteristic with a lower negative gradient than anticipated, indicating less stability than simple flow models would suggest. Hot-wire flow mapping at the rotor exit supported the overall conclusion that the rotor showed a strong reluctance to stall at the root apparently due to “centrifuging” of the boundary layer toward the tip.

Copyright © 1993 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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