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TECHNICAL PAPERS

An Infrared Technique for Evaluating Turbine Airfoil Cooling Designs

[+] Author and Article Information
P. C. Sweeney

Rolls-Royce Allison, Indianapolis, IN 46206

J. F. Rhodes

Allison Advanced Development Company, Indianapolis, IN 46206

J. Turbomach 122(1), 170-177 (Feb 01, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.555438 History: Received February 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Moon, H. K., and Glezer, B., 1996, “Application of Advanced Experimental Techniques in the Development of a Cooled Turbine Nozzle,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-233.
Scherer, V., Wittig, S., Morad, K., and Mikhael, N., 1991, “Jets in a Crossflow: Effects of Hole Spacing to Diameter Ratio on the Spatial Distribution of Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-356.
Martiny, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 1995, “Full-Coverage Film Cooling Investigations: Adiabatic Wall Temperatures and Flow Visualization,” ASME Paper No. 95-WA/HT-4.
Wittig, S., Schulz, A., Gritsch, M., and Thole, K. A., 1996, “Transonic Film-Cooling Investigations: Effects of Hole Shapes and Orientations,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-222.
Martiny, M., Schulz, A., Wittig, S., and Dilzer, M., 1997, “Influence of a Mixing-Jet on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-247.
Sen,  B., Schmidt,  D. L., and Bogard,  D. G., 1996, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 800–806.
Schmidt,  D. L., Sen,  B., and Bogard,  D. G., 1996, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Adiabatic Effectiveness,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 807–813.
Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., and Bogard, D. G., 1996, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-299.
Schmidt, D. L., and Bogard, D. G., 1996, “Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence and Surface Roughness on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-462.
Reilly, R. S., 1996, “Advanced Film Cooling Rig Development and Test Results,” NASA Contractor Report #204136, Aug., limited distribution.
Martiny, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 1997, “Mathematical Model Describing the Coupled Heat Transfer in Effusion Cooled Combustor Walls,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-329.
Ballal, D. R., and Lefebvre, A. H., 1972, “A Proposed Method for Calculating Film-Cooled Wall Temperatures in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers,” ASME Paper No. 72-WA/HT-24.
Ballal,  D. R., and Lefebvre,  A. H., 1973, “Film-Cooling Effectiveness in the Near Slot Region,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 95, pp. 265–266.
Stollery,  J. L., and El-Ehwany,  A. A. M., 1967, “On the Use of a Boundary Layer Model for Correlating Film-Cooling Data,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 10, pp. 101–105.
Dieck, R. H., 1992, Measurement Uncertainty Methods and Applications, Instrument Society of America, pp. 91–112.

Figures

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Lamilloy® snowflake design
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The flat plate rig uses electrically heated air to simulate the proper free stream-to-coolant temperature ratio
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Specimen preparation involves installing instrumentation and scribing locating marks
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A film of air is used to cool the ZnSe window
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The IR temperature calibration has an uncertainty of less than 4°C
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Increasing free stream-to-coolant temperature difference reduces uncertainty of effectiveness measurement
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Infrared surface temperatures and rig flow conditions are recorded simultaneously
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Calibration checks for each specimen with no cooling flow ensure temperature measurement accuracy (specimen 1 is shown here)
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Lamilloy hole geometry consists of staggered arrays of impingement and film holes.
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A two-dimensional contour plot is useful for associating cooling performance with specific cooling design features
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Spanwise-averaged effectiveness values were independent of averaging width for all specimens tested
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The test matrix yields span-averaged peak effectiveness data at three free stream Reynolds numbers
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Overall effectiveness is independent of ReL when normalized by Stanton number
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A film hole angle of 30 deg improves cooling performance by enhancing hot side film coverage
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(a) Small dot-shaped areas of high effectiveness correspond to film hole locations. (b) Specimen 1 has film hole spacing of S/D=10.5 and injection angle of 90 deg.
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(a) Large dot-shaped areas of high effectiveness correspond to impingement hole locations. (b) Specimen 3 has film hole spacing of S/D=14.8 and injection angle of 90 deg.
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(a) Hole injection angle of 30 deg enhances cooling film build-up. (b) Specimen 2 has film hole spacing of S/D=10.5 and injection single of 30 deg.
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(a) Film coverage from angled holes augments effectiveness of impingement regions immediately downstream of film holes. (b) Specimen 4 has film hole spacing of S/D=14.8 and injection angle of 30 deg.
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Angled holes improve effectiveness by 10 percent for S/D=10.5
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Angled holes produce minimal improvement in effectiveness for S/D=14.8

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