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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Active Stabilization of Surge in an Axicentrifugal Turboshaft Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
E. B. Nelson, J. D. Paduano, A. H. Epstein

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Turbomach 122(3), 485-493 (Feb 01, 1999) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1304915 History: Received February 01, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Fink, D. A., 1988, “Surge Dynamics and Unsteady Flow Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressors,” MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory Report No. 193.
Huang,  X. Y., and Ffowcs Williams,  J. E., 1989, “Active Stabilization of Compressor Surge,” J. Fluid Mech., 204, pp. 245–262.
Pinsley,  J. E., Guenette,  G. R., Greitzer,  E. M., and Epstein,  A. H., 1991, “Dynamic Control of Centrifugal Compressor Surge Using Tailored Structures,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 723–732.
Gysling,  D. L., Dugundji,  J., Greitzer,  E. M., and Epstein,  A. H., 1991, “Dynamic Control of Centrifugal Compressor Surge Using Tailored Structures,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 710–722.
Simon,  J. S., Valavani,  L., Epstein,  A. H., and Greitzer,  E. M., 1993, “Evaluation of Approaches to Active Compressor Surge Stabilization,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 57–67.
Freeman,  C., Wilson,  A. G., Day,  I. J., and Swinbanks,  M. A., 1998, “Experiments in Active Control of Stall on an Aeroengine Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 637–647.
Eveker,  K., Nett,  C. N., Sharma,  O. P., and Gysling,  D. L., 1998, “Integrated Control of Rotating Stall and Surge in High-Speed Multistage Compression Systems,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 440–445.
Greitzer,  E. M., 1976, “Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors, Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model, and Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison with Theory,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98, pp. 190–217.
Borror, S. L., 1994, “Natural and Forced Response Measurements of Hydrodynamic Stability in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine,” M. S. thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Corn, B. A., 1998, “Surge Dynamics of a Helicopter Engine Gas Generator,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Corn, B. A., 1998, “LTS-101 Gas Generator Data Archive,” Run 80, 6 Aug., created by Eric B. Nelson.
Jacques, R., 1994, “FORSE Transfer Function ID,” Space Engineering Research Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Weigl,  H. J., Paduano,  J. D., Frechette,  L. G., Epstein,  A. H., Greitzer,  E. M., Bright,  M. M., and Strazisar,  A. J., 1998, “Active Stabilization of Rotating Stall and Surge in Transonic Single Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 625–636.
Weigl, H. J., and Paduano, J. D., 1997, “Application of H-infinity Control With Eigenvalue Perturbations to Stabilize a Transonic Compressor,” presented at the IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Hartford, Oct. 5–7.
Moore,  F. K., and Greitzer,  E. M., 1986, “A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems, Part I—Development of Equations, and Part II—Application,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108, pp. 68–97.
Nelson, E. B., 1998, “An Experimental Study of Surge Control in the Allied Signal LTS-101 Helicopter Turboshaft Engine,” M.S. thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Takahashi, Y., Rabins, M. J., and Auslander, D. M., 1972, Control of Dynamic Systems, Addison-Wesley.
Smith, R. S., Chu, C. C., and Fanson, J. L., 1994, “The Design of H∞ Controllers for an Experimental Non-collected Flexible Structure Problem,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol. 2 , No. 2.
Kwakernaak,  H., 1993, “Robust Control and H-Infinity Optimization: Tutorial Paper,” Automatica, 29, No. 2, pp. 255–273.
Bae, J. W., 1998, “An Experimental Study of Surge Control in a Helicopter Gas Turbine Engine,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Berndt, R. G., 1995, “Actuation for Rotating Stall Control of High Speed Axial Compressors,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Epstein,  A. H., Ffowcs-Williams,  J. E., and Greitzer,  E. M., 1989, “Active Suppression of Aerodynamic Instabilities in Turbomachines,” J. Propulsion, 5, No. 2, pp. 204–211.
Ffowcs Williams,  J. E., Harper,  M. F. L., and Allwright,  D. J., 1993, “Active Stabilization of Compressor Instability and Surge in a Working Engine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 68–75.
McNulty, G. S., 1993, “A Study of Dynamic Compressor Surge Control Strategies for a Gas Turbine Engine,” M.S. thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mass. Institute of Technology.

Figures

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LTS-101 gas producer: note plenum above impeller shroud
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Circumferential tap locations within diffuser
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Speed lines at 95 percent corrected speed
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Open-loop unsteady pressure traces 2 s prior to surge. See Fig. 2 for location of vane cavity pressure taps. Perturbation magnitudes given in percent compressor exit pressure.
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Power spectral density of vane cavity pressure. Bold=immediately prior to surge; solid=0.34 percent in mass flow from surge; dashed=4.7 percent in mass flow from surge.
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Static pressure data from Fig. 4, low-pass filtered at 30 Hz to highlight the surge mode (top), and band-pass filtered with a center frequency of 70 Hz to highlight the acoustic mode (bottom)
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Transfer functions from valve command to inlet static pressure
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SIMO transfer function fit for best compensator designs: (a) valve command to compressor inlet static pressure; (b) valve command to diffuser throat static pressure
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Control effectiveness in suppressing surge mode, at open-loop surge mass flow: (a) inlet static pressure; (b) vane cavity static pressure
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Compressor range extension with active stabilization of surge
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Compression system geometry for lumped-parameter surge model
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Acoustic model of LTS-101 with acoustic ducts and plenum
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Block diagram of control system used for specification of design constraints
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(a) Closed-loop transfer function from r to u (solid); shaped by W2−1 (dashed); (b) closed-loop transfer function from r to y (solid); shaped by W3−1 (dashed)
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Design plant model showing eigenvalue perturbation circles; note that surge eigenvalues are neutrally stable
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Compensator transfer functions: (a) compressor inlet static pressure to valve command (one of two similar transfer functions); (b) diffuser throat static pressure to valve command

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