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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Unsteady Effects in Turbine Tip Clearance Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Anil Prasad

United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108

Joel H. Wagner

Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Turbomach 122(4), 621-627 (Feb 01, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1314608 History: Received February 01, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Rains,  D. A., 1954, “Tip Clearance Flows in Axial Flow Compressors and Pumps,” California Institute of Technology, Hydrodynamics and Mechanical Engineering Laboratories, Report No. 5.
Sieverding,  C. H., 1985, “Recent Progress in the Understanding of Basic Aspects of Secondary Flows in Turbine Blade Passages,” ASME J. Turbomach., 107, pp. 248–257.
Bindon,  J. P., 1989, “The Measurement and Formation of Tip Clearance Loss,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 257–263.
Moore,  J., and Tilton,  J. S., 1988, “Tip Leakage Flow in a Linear Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 110, pp. 18–26.
Sjolander,  S. A., and Cao,  D., 1995, “Measurements of the Flow in an Idealized Turbine Tip Gap,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 578–584.
Morphis, G., and Bindon, J. P., 1988, “The Effects of Relative Motion, Blade Edge Radius and Gap Size on the Blade Tip Pressure Distribution in an Annular Cascade With Clearance,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-256.
Joslyn,  H. D., and Dring,  R. P., 1992, “Three-Dimensional Flow in an Axial Turbine: Part 1—Aerodynamic Mechanisms,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 61–70.
Ni,  R. H., 1982, “A Multiple Grid Scheme for Solving Euler Equations,” AIAA J., 20, pp. 1565–1571.
Davis, R. L., Ni, R.-H., and Carter, J. E., 1986, “Cascade Viscous Flow Analysis Using Navier–Stokes equations,” AIAA Paper No. 86-0033.
Giles,  M. B., 1990, “Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Euler Equation Calculations,” AIAA J., 28, pp. 2050–2058.
Ni, R. H., and Bogoian, J. C., 1989, “Predictions of 3-D Multi-stage Turbine Flow Fields Using a Multiple-Grid Euler Solver,” AIAA Paper No. 89-0203.
Ni, R. H., and Sharma, O. P., 1990, “Using a 3-D Euler Flow Simulation to Assess Effects of Periodic Unsteady Flow Through Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2357.
Davis, R. L., Shang, T., Buteau, J., and Ni, R.-H., 1996, “Prediction of 3-D Unsteady Flow in Multi-stage Turbomachinery Using an Implicit Dual Time-Step Approach,” AIAA Paper No. 96-2565.
Baldwin, B. S., and Lomax, H., 1978, “Thin Layer Approximation and Algebraic Model for Separated Turbulent Flows,” AIAA Paper No. 78-257.
Khan, R., 2000, “Boundary Layers on Compressor Blades,” Ph.D. dissertation (in preparation), Whittle Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.

Figures

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The streamline pattern determined from the computational solution. (a) Streamline pattern on a plane that is parallel to the blade tip surface and a small distance away from it. The location of an axially aligned intersection place is indicated, at which the flow in the tip gap is examined. (b) Streamline pattern in the plane, showing clearly the existence of a separation bubble near the edge between the pressure surface and the blade tip.
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Location of the high-response instrumentation. Of the five transducers installed on the blade outer air seal, three are located within the blade tip footprint and one each is installed upstream and downstream of the blade. All distances are measured from the blade tip leading edge and normalized by blade chord at the tip.
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Typical airfoil pressure distributions on the vane. The ordinate is the pressure coefficient defined in Eq. (1) and the spanwise locations of the distributions are indicated. The solid line is the pressure distribution determined from the computational solution.
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Typical airfoil distributions on the blade. The ordinate is the pressure coefficient defined in Eq. (2) and the spanwise locations of the distributions are indicated. The solid line is the computational pressure distribution.
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Time variation of unsteady pressure at x/bx=−0.284 upstream of the blade tip leading edge. The ordinate is defined in Eq. (3).
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Time variation of unsteady pressure at x/bx=0.229 within the blade tip footprint. The ordinate is defined in Eq. (3).
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Time variation of unsteady pressure at x/bx=0.482 within the blade tip footprint. The ordinate is defined in Eq. (3).
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Time variation of unsteady pressure at x/bx=0.720 within the blade tip footprint. The ordinate is defined in Eq. (3).
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Time variation of unsteady pressure at x/bx=1.239 downstream of the blade tip trailing edge. The ordinate is defined in Eq. (3).
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Pressure signature at x/bx=0.229. In the upper pane, the computational result is shown as the broken line and the ensemble-averaged measurement is shown as the solid line. The lower pane depicts the corresponding variation of the ensemble deviation. The blade tip lies between the two vertical lines indicated.
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Pressure signature at x/bx=0.482. In the upper pane, the computational result is shown as the broken line and the ensemble-averaged measurement is shown as the solid line. The lower pane depicts the corresponding variation of the ensemble deviation to the same scale as the upper pane. The blade tip lies between the two vertical lines indicated.
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Pressure signature at x/bx=0.720. In the upper pane, the computational result is shown as the broken line and the ensemble-averaged measurement is shown as the solid line. The lower pane depicts the corresponding variation of the ensemble deviation to the same scale as the upper pane. The blade tip lies between the two vertical lines indicated.
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Static pressure coefficient on the surface of the blade outer air seal. The static pressure coefficient is defined with respect to the turbine inlet total pressure and normalized by the turbine inlet dynamic pressure so that regions indicated by red contour levels correspond to low static pressure and those indicated by blue to higher static pressure. The high-response pressure transducers are located at the axial stations indicated by the broken lines.

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