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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Tip Clearance Effects in a Turbine Rotor: Part I—Pressure Field and Loss

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinwen Xiao, Andrew A. McCarter, Budugur Lakshminarayana

Center for Gas Turbines and Power, Pennsylvania State University, 153-J Hammond Bldg., University Park, PA 16802

J. Turbomach 123(2), 296-304 (Feb 01, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1368365 History: Received February 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Sjolander, S. A., 1997, “Overview of Tip-Clearance Effects in Axial Turbines,” VKI Lecture Series 1997-01, “Secondary and Tip-Clearance Flows in Axial Turbines,” Directed by Sieverding, C.H., the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Belgium.
Graham,  J. A. H., 1986, “Investigation of a Tip Clearance Cascade in a Water Analogy Rig,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108, pp. 38–46.
Sjolander,  S. A., and Amrud,  K. K., 1987, “Effects of Tip Clearance on Blade Loading in a Planar Cascade of Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109, pp. 237–244.
Bindon, J. P., 1987, “Pressure Distributions in the Tip Clearance Region of an Unshrouded Axial Turbine as Affecting the Problem of Tip Burnout,” ASME Paper No. 87-GT-230.
Yaras,  M., Zhu,  Y., and Sjolander,  S. A., 1989, “Flow Field in the Tip Gap of a Planar Cascade of Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 276–293.
Yamamoto, A., Matsunuma, T., Ikeuchi, K., and Outa, E., 1994, “Unsteady Endwall/Tip-Clearance Flows and Losses due to Turbine Rotor-Stator Interaction,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-461.
Bindon,  J. P., 1989, “The Measurement and Formation of Tip Clearance Loss,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 257–263.
Yaras, M., and Sjolander, S. A., 1989, “Losses in the Tip-Leakage Flow of a Planar Cascade of Turbine Blades,” AGARD-CP-469, “Secondary Flows in Turbomachines,” Paper 20.
Yamamoto, A., Tominaga, J., Matsunuma, T., and Outa, E., 1994, “Detailed Measurements of Three-Dimensional Flows and Losses Inside an Axial Flow Turbine Rotor,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-348.
Peter, D. W., and Moore, J., 1995, “Tip Leakage Loss Development in a Linear Turbine Cascade,” AGARD-CP-571, “Loss Mechanisms and Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines,” Paper 12.
Lakshminarayana,  B., Camci,  C., Halliwell,  I., and Zaccaria,  M., 1996, “Design and Development of a Turbine Research Facility to Study Rotor-Stator Interaction Effects,” International Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines, 13, pp. 155–172.
Treaster,  A., and Yocum,  A. M., 1979, “The Calibration and Application of Five-Hole Probes,” ISA Trans., 18, pp. 23–34.
Zaccaria,  M., and Lakshminarayana,  B., 1995, “Investigation of Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of a Turbine Nozzle,” J. Propul. Power, 11, No. 1, pp. 55–63.
Kacker,  S. C., and Okapuu,  U., 1982, “A Mean Line Prediction Method for Axial Flow Turbine Efficiency,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 104, pp. 111–119.
Luo, J., Lakshminarayana, B., 1997, “Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analysis of Turbine Rotor and Tip-Leakage Flowfield,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-421.
Bindon, J. P., 1990, Private Communication.

Figures

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Schematic of facility test section and measurement positions. 0 tip gap height: 0.76% chord at tip; 1 static pressure measurement on suction and pressure surfaces; 2 static pressure measurement at the corner of the blade tip; 3 transient pressure measurement on the casing wall from leading edge (X=0) to trailing edge (X=1) using kulite; 4 pressure measurement within the passage at X=0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.1 using rotating five-hole Pitol probe and LDV.
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Inlet properties: C̄pt,ζ̄1,V̄x/Um,V̄θ/Um,ᾱ
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Blade pressure coefficient (Cp) comparison
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Static pressure distribution (Cp) on blade surfaces, including corresponding casing wall
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Static pressure coefficient (Cp) inside rotor passage
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Cp distribution on blade tip
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Static pressure coefficient Cp on casing wall
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Tangential force coefficient (CFy) along blade height
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Pressure coefficients on the casing wall (at the corresponding positions to the pressure surface and suction surface)
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Development of total pressure drop coefficient (Cpt)
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Development of total pressure loss coefficient (ζ)
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Area integrated mass averaged loss coefficient

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