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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Flow Interaction From the Exit Cavity of an Axial Turbine Blade Row Labyrinth Seal

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Pfau, M. Treiber, M. Sell, G. Gyarmathy

Turbomachinery Laboratory, Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

J. Turbomach 123(2), 342-352 (Feb 01, 2000) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1368124 History: Received February 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Traupel, W., 1966, “Thermische Strömungsmaschinen,” Springer-Verlag.
Sieverding, C. H., 1984, “Recent Progress in the Understanding of Basic Aspects of Secondary Flows in Turbine Passages,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-78.
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Heyes,  F. J. G., Hodson,  H. P., and Bailey,  M., 1992, “The Effect of Blade Tip Geometry on the Tip Leakage Flow in Axial Turbine Cascades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 543–651.
Sell,  M., Treiber,  M., Casciaro,  C., and Gyarmathy,  G., 1999, “Tip Clearance Affected Flow Fields in a Turbine Blade Row,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 201, Part A, pp. 308–318.
Egli,  A., 1935, “The Leakage of Steam Through Labyrinth Seals,” Trans. of the ASME, 57, pp. 115–122.
Rhode, D. L., Johnson, J. W., and Broussard, D. H., 1996, “Flow Visualization and Leakage Measurements of Stepped Labyrinth Seals; Part I: Annular Groove,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-136.
Takenaga, H., Matsuda, T., and Yokota, H., 1998, “An Experimental Study on Labyrinth Seals for Steam Turbines.” Proc. 8th International Symposium on Flow Visualisation, Sorrento, Italy.
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Millward, J. A., and Edwards, M. F., 1994, “The Windage Heating of Air Passing Through Labyrinth Seals,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-56.
Florjancic, M., 1990, “Annular Seals of High Centrifugal Pumps: A New Theory and Full Scale Measurements of Rotodynamic Coefficients and Hydraulic Friction Factors,” ETH Dissertation No. 9087, Zürich, Switzerland.
Graf, K., 1991, “Spaltströmungsbedingte Kräfte an berührungslosen Dichtungen von hydraulischen und thermischen Turbomaschinen,” ETH Dissertation No. 9319, Zürich, Switzerland.
Amoser, M., 1995, “Strömungsfelder und Radialkräfte in Labyrinthdichtungen hydraulischer Strömungsmaschiner,” ETH Dissertation No. 11150, Zürich, Switzerland.
Spirig, M., 1999, “Einfluss der Kammerströmung auf die Kräfte im endlich langen Spalt einer Labyrinthdichtung,” ETH Dissertation No. 13288, Zürich, Switzerland.
Denton, J. D., and Johnson, C. G., 1976, “An Experimental Study of the Tip Leakage Flow Around Shrouded Turbine Blades,” CEGB research report CEGB-R/M/N848.
Trutnovsky, K., and Komotori, K., 1981, Berührungsfreie Dichtungen, 4th ed., VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf.
Sell, M., Althaus, P., and Treiber, M., 1996, “Data Acquisition and Control Within the Zürich Annular Cascade,” Proceedings XIIIth Symposium on Measuring Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flows in Cascades and Turbomachines. Zürich. eds., Gossweiller and Gyarmathy.
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Treiber, M., 2000, Dissertation, ETH Zürich, Switzerland (in preparation).

Figures

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Blade form and dimensions (hub)
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Test cascade geometry and measurement position
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h-s-diagram of blade labyrinth system
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Inlet cavity wall pressure distribution (Cp), Δcontour=0.1. The dash lines represent the location of the shroud leading edge.
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Relative pressure distribution within the seal gap
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Total pressure loss (ΔCp0) downstream of the trailing edge (a) 1/12, (b) 1/6, (c) 1/3 axial chord, Δcontour=0.1
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Total pressure loss (ΔCp0) downstream of the trailing edge (a) 1/2, (b) 1 axial chord, Δcontour=0.05
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Velocity components 1/12 axial chord downstream of the trailing edge normalized with c0: (a) axial velocity, (b) circumferential velocity, Δcontour=0.01
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Velocity components 1/6 axial chord downstream of the trailing edge normalized with c0: (a) axial velocity, Δcontour=0.05, (b) radial velocity, Δcontour=0.02
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Wall static pressure measurements (Cp), left on the cavity groove bottom (H=124 percent), right on the channel casing wall (H=100 percent), Δcontour=0.01. Note that the length scale is axially stretched by a factor of 2.
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Secondary flow vectors normalized with c0, 1/2 axial chord downstream of the trailing edge
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Secondary flow vectors normalized with c0, 1 axial chord downstream of the trailing edge
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Sketch of driving mechanisms
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Sketch of flow effects (top view), velocity triangles at Xe≈0.4
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Sketch of flow effects (side view)
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Streamlines of preliminary CFD calculations: viewed from above into labyrinth cavities

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