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TECHNICAL PAPERS

An Investigation of Surge in a High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Using Digital PIV

[+] Author and Article Information
Mark P. Wernet, Michelle M. Bright

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135

Gary J. Skoch

Army Research Laboratory, Vehicle Technology Directorate, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135

J. Turbomach 123(2), 418-428 (Jan 01, 2000) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1343465 History: Received January 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Weigl,  H. J., Paduano,  J. D., Fréchette,  L. G., Epstein,  A. H., Greitzer,  E. M., Bright,  M. M., and Strazisar,  A. J., 1997, “Active Stabilization of Rotating Stall and Surge in a Transonic Single Stage Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, No. 4, pp. 625–636.
Paone, N., Riethmuller, M. L., and Van den Braembussche, R. A., 1988, “Application of Particle Image Displacement Velocimetry to a Centrifugal Pump,” Proc. Fourth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11–14.
Bryanston-Cross,  P. J., Towers,  C. E., Judge,  T. R., Towers,  D. P., Harasgama,  S. P., and Hopwood,  S. T., 1992, “The Application of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a Short-Duration Transonic Annular Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 504–509.
Rothlübbers, C., Scheffler, T., Orglmeister, R., and Siekmann, H., 1996, “Particle Tracking Velocimetry Measurements in a Radial Pump With Particle Pair Detection Using the Hough Transform,” Proc. Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 8–11, pp. 8.6.1–8.6.6.
Oldenburg, M., and Pap, E., 1996, “Velocity Measurement in the Impeller and in the Volute of a Centrifugal Pump by Particle Image Displacement Velocimetry,” Proc. Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 8–11, pp. 8.2.1–8.2.5.
Gogineni, S., Goss, L., Copenhaver, W., and Gorrell, S., 1998, “Development of Digital Two-Color PIV for Turbomachinery Applications,” Paper No. AIAA-97-0494.
Day Treml, K., and Lawless, P. B., 1998, “Particle Image Velocimetry of Vane–Rotor Interaction in a Turbine Stage,” Paper No. AIAA-98-3599.
Bryanston-Cross,  P. J., Burnett,  M., Lee,  W. K., Udrea,  D. D., Chana,  K., and Anderson,  S. J., 1997, “Transonic PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) Measurements Made in the Stator Trailing Edge and Rotor Region of the ILPF (Isentropic Light Piston Facility) at Pyestock Farnborough,” Proc. SPIE Conference on Optical Diagnostics in Fluid and Thermal Flow, Vol. 3172, pp. 561–574.
Wernet, M. P., 1997, “Demonstration of PIV in a Transonic Compressor,” Proc. AGARD 90th Symposium on Nonintrusive Measurement Techniques for Propulsion Engines, Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 20–24.
Wernet, M. P., 1998, “Digital PIV Measurements in the Diffuser of a High Speed Centrifugal Compressor,” Paper No. AIAA-98-2777.
Skoch, G. J., Prahst, P. S., Wernet, M. P., Wood, J. R., and Strazisar, A. J., 1997 “Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Flow Field in a 4:1 Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Impeller,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-342.
Paduano,  J. D., Epstein,  A. H., Valavani,  L., Longley,  J. P., Greitzer,  E. M., and Guenette,  G. R., 1993, “Active Control of Rotating Stall in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 48–56.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic cross section of centrifugal compressor facility. Optical access port and CCD camera mounting configuration are shown. Light sheet insertion and recession into compressor casing are also illustrated.
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Schematic drawing of vaned diffuser and impeller showing the optical viewing port, light sheet probe insertion locations, light sheet extents, and Kulite locations
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Sample single exposure DPIV image obtained from the centrifugal compressor rig. The diffuser vanes have been overdrawn on the image to accentuate their extents and the pressure (PS) and suction surfaces (SS) have been labeled.
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Sample of the digitized Kulite #3 signal along with the laser Q-switch trigger signals (narrow spikes) showing a complete surge event
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Pressure time history measured using Kulite #3 during a surge event is shown across top, where the labeled laser Q-switch trigger signals indicate time location in surge cycle of each respective velocity vector plot (velocity scale in plot A is not the same as the scales in plots B–D). (A) normal flow before the onset of surge; (B) reverse flow field at peak of high-pressure surge cycle; (C) reverse flow field on the falling edge of the high-pressure surge cycle; (D) reverse flow at the transition between the high-pressure and low-pressure portion of the surge cycle.
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Pressure–time history during a surge event is shown across top, where the labeled laser Q-switch trigger signals indicate time location in surge cycle of each respective velocity vector plot (velocity scales in plots E and F are the same, scales in plots G and H are the same). (E) initiation of forward flow in the diffuser; (F) minimum pressure and peak velocity in diffuser; (G) pressure recovery and flow deceleration in the diffuser; (H) end of surge cycle and return to presurge conditions observed in Fig. 5(A).
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Pressure traces for Kulites #3 (diffuser throat) and #4 (25 mm upstream of the impeller) during a surge event
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PIV measurements (absolute reference frame) of the flow upstream of the impeller obtained at 10 percent span: (a) steady flow field prior to surge; (b) reversing flow at the instant of peak static pressure observed at Kulite #4
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Kulite #3 signal digitized at 10 kHz, yielding an aliased dynamic pressure signal: (a) time record of several surge cycles; (b) expanded time record of the dashed box region from Fig. 9(a)

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