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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Tip Clearance Actuation With Magnetic Bearings for High-Speed Compressor Stall Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. S. Spakovszky, J. D. Paduano

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

R. Larsonneur, A. Traxler

MECOS Traxler AG, Winterthur, CH 8404, Switzerland

M. M. Bright

NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135

J. Turbomach 123(3), 464-472 (Feb 01, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1370163 History: Received February 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Epstein,  A., Williams,  J., and Greitzer,  E., 1989, “Active Suppression of Aerodynamic Instabilities in Turbomachines,” J. Propul.,5, No. 2, pp. 204–211.
Weigl,  H., Paduano,  J., Fréchette,  L., Epstein,  A., Greitzer,  E., Bright,  M., and Strazisar,  A., 1998, “Active Stabilization of Rotating Stall and Surge in a Transonic Single Stage Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 625–636.
Graf, M., Wong, T., Greitzer, E., Marble, F., Tan, C., Shin, H. W., and Wisler, D., 1997, “Effects of Non-Axisymmetric Tip Clearance on Axial Compressor Performance and Stability,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-406.
Gordon, K., 1999, “Three-Dimensional Rotating Stall Inception and Effects of Rotating Tip Clearance Asymmetry in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT.
Reid, L., and Moore, D., 1978, “Design and Overall Performance of Four Highly Loaded, High Speed Inlet Stages for an Advanced High Pressure Ratio Core Compressor,” Technical Report TP-1337, NASA.
Reid, L., and Moore, D., 1978, “Performance of a Single-Stage Axial-Flow Transonic Compressor with Rotor and Stator Aspect Ratios of 1.19 and 1.26, Respectively, and With Design Pressure Ratio 1.82,” Technical Report TP-1338, NASA.
Ehrich, F., 1992, Handbook of Rotordynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Santiago, O., San Andrés, L., and Olivera, J., 1998, “Imbalance Response of a Rotor Supported on Open-End Integral Squeeze Film Dampers,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-6.
Hynes,  T., and Greitzer,  E., 1987, “A method for Assessing Effects of Circumferential Flow Distortion on Compressor Stability,” ASME J. Turbo- mach., 109, pp. 371–379.
Moore,  F., and Greitzer,  E., 1986, “A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compressors: Part I—Development of the Equations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108, pp. 68–76.
Adamczyk,  J., Celestina,  M., Beach,  T., and Barnett,  M., 1990, “Simulation of Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow Within a Multistage Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 370–376.
Wang, Y., Paduano, J., and Murray, R., 1999, “Nonlinear Control Design for Rotating Stall and Surge With Tip Clearance Actuation,” Proc. IEEE International Conference on Control Applications.
Schmidt, E., Platter, T., and Springer, H., 1996, “Force and Stiffness Calculations in Magnetic Bearings—Comparison Between Finite Element Method and Network Theory,” Proc. 5th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings, Kanazawa, Japan, pp. 259–264.
Vischer, D., and Bleuler, H., 1990, “A New Approach to Sensorless and Voltage Controlled AMB’s Based on Network Theory Concepts,” Proc. 2nd International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings, T. Higuchi, ed., University of Tokyo.
Herzog,  R., Bühler,  P., Gähler,  C., and Larsonneur,  R., 1996, “Unbalance Compensation Using Generalized Notch Filters in the Multivariable Feedback of Magnetic Bearings,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol.,4, pp. 580–586.
Traxler, A., 1985, “Eigenschaften und Auslegung von berührungsfreien elektromagnetischen Lagern,” Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zürich, ETH thesis no. 7851.

Figures

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Active tip-clearance stall control concept
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Design process for an axial compressor magnetic bearing system
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NASA Glenn high-speed single-stage compressor test facility
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Preliminary magnetic bearing compressor rotor and corresponding lumped parameter model
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Preliminary open loop rotor model eigenvalues and mode shapes
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Transfer function from magnetic bearing force input [N] to blade tip deflection [μm]
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Closed loop magnetic bearing compressor system for stall control
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Spectral analysis of open loop prestall pressure perturbations (experiment by Weigl et al. 2) and of open loop compressor model
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Open loop compressor dynamics (×) and closed loop poles with constant gain control (+)
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Pole configuration and rotor lamination of magnetic bearing servo-actuator
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Campbell diagram of magnetic bearing servo-actuator (forward and backward whirling modes are marked solid and dashed, respectively)
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Current-force characteristic of magnetic bearing servo-actuator and operating locus (left); achievable whirl radii at several shaft locations and amplifier operation limits (right)

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