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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Convective Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics in Axial Flow Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael G. Dunn

Gas Turbine Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43235

J. Turbomach 123(4), 637-686 (Feb 01, 2001) (50 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1397776 History: Received February 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

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Kingcombe, R. C., Harasgama, S. P., Leversuch, N. P., and Wedlake, E. T., 1989, “Aerodynamic and Heat Transfer Measurements on Blading for a High Rim-Speed Transonic Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 89-GT-228.
Dunn,  M. G., 1990, “Phase and Time-Resolved Measurements of Unsteady Heat Transfer and Pressure in a Full-Stage Rotating Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 531–538.
Abhari, R. S., Guenette, G. R., Epstein, A. H., and Giles, M. B., 1991, “Comparison of Time-Resolved Turbine Rotor Blade Heat Transfer Measurements and Numerical Calculations,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-268.
Hodson, H. P., 1983, “Boundary Layer and Loss Measurements on the Rotor of an Axial-Flow Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 83-GT-4.
Hodson, H. P., 1984, “Measurement of Wake Generated Unsteadiness in the Rotor Passages of Axial Flow Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-189.
Hodson, H. P., 1984, “Boundary-Layer Transition and Separation Near the Leading Edge of a High-Speed Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-179.
Binder, A., Forster, W., Kruse, H. and Rogge, H., 1984, “An Experimental Investigation Into the Effect of Wakes on the Unsteady Turbine Rotor Flow,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-178.
Doorly, D. J., Oldfield, M. L. G., and Scrivener, C. T. J., 1985, “Wake Passing in a Turbine Rotor Cascade,” AGARD Conference Preprint 390, Bergen, Norway.
Doorly, D. J., and Oldfield, M. L. G., 1985, “Simulation of the Effects of Shock Wave Passing on a Turbine Rotor Blade,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-112.
Rigby, M. J., Johnson, A. B., Oldfield, M. L. G., and Jones, T. V., 1989, “Temperature Scaling of Turbine Blade Heat Transfer With and Without Shock Wave Passing,” Proc. 9th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Athens, Greece.
Hilditch, M. A., and Ainsworth, R. W., 1990, “Unsteady Heat Transfer Measurements on a Rotating Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-175.
Pfeil,  H., and Eifler,  J., 1976, “Turbulenzverhaltnisse hinter rotierenden Zylindergittern,” Forschung im Ingenieurwesen, 42, pp. 27–32.
Schulte, V., 1995, “Unsteady Separated Boundary Layers in Axial-Flow Turbomachinery,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge University, United Kingdom.
Banieghbal,  M. R., Curtis,  E. M., Denton,  J. D., Hodson,  H. P., Huntsman,  I., Schulte,  V., Harvey,  N. W., and Steele,  A. B., 1995, “Wake Passing in LP Turbine Blades,” AGARD Conf. Proc., pp. 5–8 to 5–12.
Cebeci, T., 1970, “Calculation of Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers With Heat and Mass Transfer,” AIAA Paper No. 70–741.
Ashworth,  D. A., LaGraff,  J. E., Schultz,  D. L., and Grindrod,  K. J., 1985, “Unsteady Aerodynamic and heat Transfer Processes in a Transonic Turbine Stage,” J. Eng. Mech., 107, pp. 1022–1030.
Denton, J. D., 1976, “Extension of the Finite Area Time-Marching Method to Three Dimensions,” von Karman Institute Lecture Series ’84.
Dawes, W. N., 1986, “A Numerical Method for the Analysis of Three-Dimensional Viscous Compressible Flows in Turbine Cascades: Application to Secondary Flow Development in a Cascade With and Without Dihedral,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-145.
Rao,  K. V., Delaney,  R. A., and Dunn,  M. G., 1994, “Vane–Blade Interaction in a Transonic Turbine, Part II—Heat Transfer,” J. Propul. Power, 10, No. 3, pp. 312–317.
Lokay,  V. I., and Trushin,  V. A., 1970, “Heat Transfer From the Gas and Flow-Passage Elements of a Rotating Gas Turbine,” Heat Transfer—Sov. Res., 2, No. 4, pp. 108–115.
Scholz, N., 1978, “Aerodynamics of Cascades,” AGARD–AG–229.
Denton, J. D., 1993, “Loss Mechanisms in Turbomachines,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-435.
Graziani,  R. A., Blair,  M. F., Taylor,  J. R., and Mayle,  R. E., 1980, “An Experimental Study of Endwall and Airfoil Surface Heat Transfer in a Large Scale Turbine Blade Cascade,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102, pp. 257–267.
Consigny, H. and Richards, B. E., 1981, “Short Duration Measurements of Heat Transfer Rate to a Gas Turbine Rotor Blade,” ASME Paper No. 81-GT-146.
Jones,  W. P., and Launder,  B. E., 1972, “The Prediction of Laminarization With a Two-Equation Model of Turbulence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 15, pp. 301–314.
Joe, C. R., Montesdeoca, X. A., Soechting, F. O., MacArthur, C. D., and Meininger, M., 1998, “High Pressure Turbine Vane Annular Cascade Heat Flux and Aerodynamic Measurements With Comparisons to Prediction,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-430.
Sharma, O. P., 1987, “Momentum and Thermal Boundary Layer Development on Turbine Airfoil Suction Surfaces,” AIAA Paper No. 87–1918.
Chima,  R. V., and Yokota,  J. W., 1990, “Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Internal Flows,” AIAA J., 28, No. 5, pp. 798–806.
Chima, R. V., 1991, “Viscous Three-Dimensional Calculation of Transonic Fan Performance,” presented at the AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Symposium on Computational Fluid Mechanics for Propulsion, San Antonio, TX.
Giel, P. W., Bunker, R. S., Van Flossen, G. J., and Boyle, R. J., 2000, “Heat Transfer Measurements and Predictions on a Power Generation Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-209.
Kirsten, T. J., Lippert, A. M., Snedden, G. C., and Smith, G. D. J., 1996, “Experimental Measurement and CFD Prediction of Heat Transfer to a Nozzle Guide Vane,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-237.
Bunker, R. S., 1997, “Separate and Combined Effects of Surface Roughness and Turbulence Intensity on Vane Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-135.
Johnson, A. B., Oldfield, M. L. G., Rigby, M. J., and Giles, M. B., 1990, “Nozzle Guide Vane Shock Wave Propagation and Bifurcation in a Transonic Turbine Rotor,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-310.
Sato, T., and Takeishi, K., 1987, “Investigation of the Heat Transfer in High Temperature Gas Turbine Vanes,” ASME Paper No. 87-GT-137.
Blair,  M. F., 1974, “An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling on Large-Scale Turbine Endwalls,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 96, pp. 524–529.
York, R. E., Hylton, L. D., and Mihelc, M. S., 1983, “An Experimental Investigation of Endwall Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics in a Linear Vane Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 83-GT-52.
Kumar, G. N., Jenkins, R. M., and Sahu, U., 1985, “Regionally Averaged Endwall Heat Transfer Correlations for a Linear Vane Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-19.
Ha, C., 1989, “Numerical Study of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer Near the Endwall of a Turbine Blade Row,” AIAA Paper No. 89–1689.
Arts, T., and Heider, R., 1994, “Aerodynamic and Thermal Performance of a Three Dimensional Annular Transonic Nozzle Guide Vane. Part I: Experimental Investigation,” AIAA Paper No. 94-2929.
Spencer, M. C., Lock, G. D., and Jones, T. V., 1995, “Endwall Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in an Annular Cascade of Nozzle Guide Vanes,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-356.
Boyle,  R. J., and Jackson,  R., 1997, “Heat Transfer Predictions for Two Turbine Nozzle Geometries at High Reynolds and Mach Numbers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 270–283.
Giel,  P. W., Thurman,  D. R., Van Fossen,  G. J., Hippensteele,  S. A., and Boyle,  R. J., 1998, “Endwall Heat Transfer Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 305–313.
Kang,  M. B., Kohli,  A., and Thole,  K. A., 1999, “Heat Transfer and Flowfield Measurements in the Leading Edge Region of a Stator Vane Endwall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 558–568.
Blair,  M. F., 1982, “Influence of Free-Stream Turbulence on Boundary-Layer Transition in Favorable Pressure Gradients,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 743–750.
Arnone,  A., Liou,  M.-S., and Povinelli,  L. A., 1992, “Navier-Stokes Solution of Transonic Cascade Flows Using Non-periodic C-Type Grids,” J. Propul. Power, 8, No. 2, pp. 410–417.
Bellows, W. J., and Mayle, R. E., 1986, “Heat Transfer Downstream of a Leading Edge Separation Bubble,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-59.
Gorla,  R. S. R., 1986, “Combined Influence of Unsteady Free Stream Velocity and Free Stream Turbulence on Stagnation Point Heat Transfer,” Int. J. Turbo Jet Engines, 3, pp. 117–123.
Taulbee, D. B., Tran, L. T., and Dunn, M. G., 1988, “Stagnation Point and Surface Heat Transfer for a Turbine Stage: Prediction and Comparison With Data,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-30.
Hanford,  A. J., and Wilson,  D. E., 1994, “The Effect of a Turbulent Wake on the Stagnation Point: Part II—Heat Transfer Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 46–56.
Funazaki,  K., 1996, “Studies on Wake-Affected Heat Transfer Around the Circular Leading Edge of Blunt Body,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 452–460.
Benner,  M. W., Sjolander,  S. A., and Moustapha,  S. H., 1997, “Influence of Leading-Edge Geometry on Profile Losses in Turbines at Off-Design Incidence: Experimental Results and an Improved Correlation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 193–200.
Abuaf, N., Dorri, B., Lee, C. P., and Flodman, D. A., 1997, “Stagnation Point Heat Transfer With a Thermal Barrier Coated Cylinder,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-385.
Brenner,  M. W., Sjolander,  S. A., and Moustapha,  S. H., 1997, “Influence of Leading-Edge Geometry on Profile Losses in Turbines at Off-Design Incidence: Experimental Results and an Improved Correlation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 193–200.
Maslov, V. P., Mineev, B. I., Pichkov, K. N., Secundov, A. N., Vorobiev, A. N., Strelets, M. Kh., and Travin, A. K., 1999, “Turbulence Intensity, Length Scale, and Heat Transfer Around Stagnation Line of Cylinder and Model Blade,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-423.
Rae,  W. J., Taulbee,  D. B., Civinskas,  K. C., and Dunn,  M. G., 1988, “Turbine-Stage Heat Transfer: Comparison of Short-Duration Measurements With State-of-the-Art Predictions,” J. Propul. Power, 4, No. 6, pp. 541–548.
Dunn,  M. G., Haldeman,  C. W., Abhari,  R. S., and McMillan,  M. L., 2000, “Influence of Vane/Blade Spacing on the Heat Flux for a Transonic Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 684–691.
Zilles, D. A., and Abhari, R. S., 1999, “Influence of Non-Isothermal Button Gage Surface Temperature in Heat Flux Measurement Applications,” Proc. IMECE99, Nashville, TN.
Bergholz, R. F., Dunn, M. G., and Steuber, G. D., 2000, “Rotor/Stator Heat Transfer Measurements and CFD Predictions for Short-Duration Turbine Rig Tests,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-208.
Narcus, A. R., Przirembel, H. R., and Soechting, F. O., 1996, “Evaluation of the External Heat Transfer Coefficient in the High-Pressure Turbine of a Full-Scale Core Engine,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-172.
Soechting, F. O., and Sharma, O. P., 1988, “Design Code Verification of External Heat Transfer Coefficients Around a Turbine Airfoil,” AIAA Paper No. 88–3011.
Tran, L. T., and Taulbee, D. B., 1991, “Prediction of Unsteady Rotor-Surface Pressure and Heat Transfer From Wake Passings,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-267.
Dunn,  M. G., and Haldeman,  C. W., 1995, “Phase-Resolved Surface Pressure and Heat Transfer Measurements on the Blade of a Two-Stage Turbine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 117, pp. 653–658.
Bunker, R. S., 2000, “A Review of Turbine Blade Tip Heat Transfer,” presented at Turbine 2000 International Symposium on Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Systems, Izmir, Turkey.
Metzger,  D. E., and Rued,  K., 1989, “The influence of Turbine Clearance Gap Leakage on Passage Velocity and Heat Transfer Near Blade Tips: Part I—Sink Flow Effects on Blade Pressure Side,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 284–292; “Part II—Source Flow Effects on Blade Suction Sides,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111 , pp. 293–300.
Booth,  T. C., Dodge,  P. R., and Hepworth,  H. K., 1982, “Rotor-Tip Leakage: Part I—Basic Methodology,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 154–161.
Wadia,  A. R., and Booth,  T. C., 1982, “Rotor Tip Leakage: Part 2—Design Optimization Through Viscous Analysis and Experiment,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 162–169.
Sjolander,  S. A., and Cao,  D., 1995, “Measurements of the Flow in an Idealized Turbine Tip Gap,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 578–584.
Yaras, M. I., and Sjolander, S. A., 1991, “Effects of Simulated Rotation on Tip Leakage in a Planar Cascade of Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-127.
Basson,  A., and Lakshminarayana,  B., 1995, “Numerical Simulation of Tip Clearance Effects in Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 348–359.
Mayle, R. E., and Metzger, D. E., 1982, “Heat Transfer at the Tip of an Unshrouded Turbine Blade,” Proc. 7th International Heat Transfer Conference, Vol. 3, pp. 87–92.
Heyes, F. J. G., and Hodson, H. P., 1992, “The Measurement and Prediction of the Tip Clearance Flow in Linear Turbine Cascades,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-214.
Ameri,  A. A., Steinthorsson,  E., and Rigby,  D. L., 1998, “Effect of Squealer Tip on Rotor Heat Transfer and Efficiency,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 753–759.
Bindon, J. P., 1986, “Pressure and Flowfield Measurements of Axial Turbine Tip Clearance Flow in a Linear Cascade,” Cambridge University Engineering Department, TR 123.
Allen, H. W., and Kofskey, M. G., 1955, “Visualization Studies of Secondary Flows in Turbine Rotor Tip Regions,” NACA TN 3519.
Chyu,  M. K., Metzger,  D. E., and Hwan,  C. L., 1987, “Heat Transfer in Shrouded Rectangular Cavities,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 1, No. 3, pp. 247–252.
Chyu,  M. K., Moon,  H. K., and Metzger,  D. E., 1989, “Heat Transfer in the Tip Region of Grooved Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 131–138.
Metzger,  D. E., Bunker,  R. S., and Chyu,  M. K., 1989, “Cavity Heat Transfer on a Transverse Grooved Wall in a Narrow Flow Channel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111, pp. 73–79.
Dunn,  M. G., and Haldeman,  C. W., 2000, “Time-Averaged Heat Flux for a Recessed Tip, Lip, and Platform of a Transonic Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 692–698.
Bunker, R. S., Bailey, J. C., and Ameri, A., 1999, “Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine, Part I: Experimental Results,” NASA TM 1999-209152.
Ameri,  A. A., and Bunker,  R. S., 2000, “Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 2: Simulation Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 272–277.
Rigby, D. L., Ameri, A. A., and Steinthorsson, E., 1996, “Internal Passage Heat Transfer Prediction Using Multiblock Grids and k–ω Turbulence Model,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-188.
Metzger,  D. E., Dunn,  M. G., and Hah,  C., 1991, “Turbine Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 502–507.
Ameri, A. A., and Steinthorsson, E., 1996, “Analysis of Gas Turbine Rotor Blade Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-189.
Ameri, A. A., and Steinthorsson, E., 1995, “Prediction of Unshrouded Rotor Blade Tip Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-142.
Dunn,  M. G., Rae,  W. J., and Holt,  J. L., 1984, “Measurement and Analysis of Heat Flux Data in a Turbine Stage: Part II—Discussion of Results and Comparison With Predictions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 106, pp. 234–240.
Dunn,  M. G., Kim,  J., Civinskas,  K. C., and Boyle,  R. J., 1994, “Time-Averaged Heat Transfer and Pressure Measurements and Comparison With Prediction for a Two-Stage Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 14–22.
Epstein, A. H., Guenette, G. R., and Norton, R. J. G., 1985, “Time Resolved Measurements of a Turbine Rotor Stationary Tip Casing Pressure and Heat Transfer Field,” AIAA Paper No. 85–1220.
Dunn, M. G., and Kim, J., 1995, “Turbine Blade Platform, Blade Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer,” Proc. Int. Soc. Airbreathing Engines, Melbourne, Australia.
Dunn,  M. G., 1990, “Phase and Time-Resolved Measurements of Unsteady Heat Transfer and Pressure in a Full-Stage Rotating Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 531–538.
Hawthorne,  W. R., 1951, “Secondary Circulation in Fluid Flow,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 206, pp. 374–387.
Lakshminarayana,  B., and Horlock,  J. H., 1973, “Generalized Expressions for Secondary Vorticity Using Intrinsic Co-Ordinates,” J. Fluid Mech., 59, pp. 97–115.
Kerrebrock,  J. L., and Mikolajczak,  A. A., 1970, “Intra-Stator Transport of Rotor Wakes and Its Effect on Compressor Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 92, pp. 359–369.
Saxer,  A. P., and Giles,  M. B., 1994, “Predictions of Three-Dimensional Steady and Unsteady Inviscid Transonic Stator/Rotor Interaction With Inlet Radial Temperature Nonuniformity,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 347–357.
Dorney,  D. J., and Schwab,  J. R., 1995, “Unsteady Numerical Simulations of Radial Temperature Profile Redistribution in a Single-Stage Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 783–791.
Saxer,  A. P., and Felici,  H. M., 1996, “Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Unsteady Hot Streak Migration and Shock Interaction in a Turbine Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 268–277.
Dorney, D. J., and Sondak, D. L., 1996, “Study of Hot Streak Phenomena in Subsonic and Transonic Flows,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-98.
Gundy-Burlet, K. and Dorney, D. J., 1997, “Influence of 3D Hot Streaks on Turbine Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-422.
Shang,  T., and Epstein,  A. H., 1996, “Analysis of Hot Streak Effects on Turbine Rotor Load,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 544–553.
Bohn, D., Funke, H., and Gier, J., 1999, “Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Flow in a 4-Stage Turbine With Special Focus on the Development of a Radial Temperature Streak,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-27.
Boyle, R. J., and Giel, P. W., 1997, “Prediction of Nonuniform Inlet Temperature Effects on Vane and Rotor Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-133.
Saxer, A. P., 1992, “A Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Inviscid Stator Rotor Interactions Using Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions,” Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Shang, T., 1995, “Influence of Inlet Temperature Distortion on Turbine Heat Transfer,” Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Shang, T., Guenette, G. R., Epstein, A. H., and Saxer, A. P., 1995, “The Influence of Inlet Temperature Distortion on Rotor Heat Transfer in a Transonic Turbine,” AIAA Paper No. 95-3042.
Orkwis, P. D., Turner, M. G., and Barter, J. W., 2000, “Linear Deterministic Source Terms for Hot Streak Simulations,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-509.
Butler,  T. L., Sharma,  O. P., Joslyn,  H. D., and Dring,  R. P., 1989, “Redistribution of an Inlet Temperature Distortion in an Axial Flow Turbine Stage,” J. Propul. Power, 5, pp. 64–71.
Roback, R. J., and Dring, R. P., 1992, “Hot Streaks and Phantom Cooling in a Turbine Rotor Passage. Part I—Separate Effects,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-75; and “Part II—Combined Effects and Analytical Modeling,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-76.
Garg, V. K., and Abhari, R. S., 1996, “Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Nusselt Number for a Film Cooled Rotating Blade,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-223 (see also “Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Nusselt Number for a Film Cooled Rotating Blade,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 18 , No. 5, pp. 452–460).
Dorney, D. J., and Gundy-Burlet, K., 1995, “Hot-Streak Clocking Effects in a 1-1/2 Stage Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-202.
Dorney, D. J., and Sharma, O. P., 1996, “A Study of Turbine Performance Increases Through Airfoil Clocking,” AIAA Paper No. 96–2816.
Huber,  F. W., Johnson,  P. D., Sharma,  O. P., Staubach,  J. B., and Gaddis,  S. W., 1996, “Performance Improvement Through Indexing of Turbine Airfoils: Part I—Experimental Investigation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 630–635.
Griffin,  L. W., Huber,  F. W., and Sharma,  O. P., 1996, “Performance Improvement Through Indexing of Turbine Airfoils: Part 2—Numerical Simulation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 636–642.
Eulitz, F., Engel, K., and Gebing, H., 1996, “Numerical Investigation of the Clocking Effects in a Multistage Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-26.
Gundy-Burlet, K., and Dorney, D. J., 1997, “Physics of Airfoil Clocking in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-444.
Johnson, D. A., and Fleeter, S., 1999, “Turbine Blade Unsteady Heat Transfer Change Due to Stator Indexing,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-376.
Tiedemann,  M., and Kost,  F., 2000, “Some Aspects of Wake–Wake Interactions Regarding Turbine Stator Clocking,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 526–533.
Kercher,  D. M., 1998, “A Film Cooling CFD Bibliography: 1971-1996,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 4, No. 1, pp. 61–72.
Kercher,  D. M., 2000, “Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972-1998,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 6, No. 5, pp. 313–319.
Bohn, D., Kusterer, K., and Schonenborn, H., 1996, “Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Flow Through a Turbine Blade Cascade With Cooling Injection at the Leading Edge,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-150.
Bohn, D. E., Becker, V. J., and Rungen, A. U., 1997, “Experimental and Numerical Conjugate Flow and Heat Transfer Investigation of a Shower-Head Cooled Turbine Guide Vane,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-15.
Bohn,  D. E., and Kusterer,  K. A., 1999, “Aerothermal Investigations of Mixing Flow Phenomena in Case of Radially Inclined Ejection Holes at the Leading Edge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 334–339.
Friedrichs,  S., Hodson,  H. P., and Dawes,  W. N., 1996, “Aerodynamic Aspects of Endwall Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 786–793.
Friedrichs,  S., Hodson,  H. P., and Dawes,  W. N., 1999, “The Design of an Improved Endwall Film Cooling Configuration,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 772–780.
Leylek,  J. H, and Zerkle,  R. D., 1994, “Discrete-Jet Film Cooling: A Comparison of Computational Results With Experiments,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 358–368.
Hyams, D. G., McGovern, K. T., and Leylek, J. H., 1996, “Effects of Geometry on Slot-Jet Film Cooling Performance,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-187.
Brittingham,  R. A., and Leylek,  J. H., 2000, “A Detailed Analysis of Film Cooling Physics: Part IV—Compound-Angle Injection With Shaped Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 133–145.
Drost, U., Bolcs, A., and Hoffs, A., 1997, “Utilization of the Transient Liquid Crystal Technique for Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Investigations on a Flat Plate and a Turbine Airfoil,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-26.
Reiss,  H., and Bolcs,  A., 2000, “Experimental Study of Showerhead Cooling on a Cylinder Comparing Several Configurations using Cylindrical and Shaped Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 162–170.
Martiny, M., Schulz, A., Wittig, S., and Dilzer, M., 1997, “Influence of a Mixing-Jet on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-247.
Thole,  K., Gritsch,  M., Schulz,  A., and Wittig,  S., 1998, “Flowfield Measurements for Film Cooling Holes With Expanded Exits,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 327–336.
Wittig, S., Schulz, A., Gritsch, M., and Thole, K. A., 1996, “Transonic Film Cooling Investigations: Effects of Hole Shapes and Orientations,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-222.
Andrews, G. E., Asere, A. A., Mkpadi, M. C., and Tirmahi, A., 1986, “Transpiration Cooling: Contribution of Film Cooling to the Overall Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-136.
Bazdidi-Tehrani, F., and Andrews, G. E., 1997, “Full Coverage Discrete Hole Film Cooling: Investigation of the Effect of Variable Density Ratio (Part II),” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-341.
Goldstein,  R. J., and Yoshida,  T., 1982, “The Influence of a Laminar Boundary Layer and Laminar Injection on Film Cooling Performance,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104, pp. 355–362.
Cho,  H. H., and Goldstein,  R. J., 1997, “Total-Coverage Discrete Hole Wall Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 320–329.
Burd,  S. W., Kaszeta,  R. W., and Simon,  T. W., 1998, “Measurements in Film Cooling Flows: Hole L/D and Turbulence Intensity Effects,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 791–798.
Berhe,  M. K., and Patankar,  S. V., 1999, “Investigation of Discrete-Hole Film Cooling Parameters Using Curved-Plate Models,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 792–803.
Louis, J. F., 1975, “Shock Tunnel Studies of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Effectiveness,” Proc. Tenth International Shock Tube Symposium, Kyoto, Japan.
Abhari, R. S., and Epstein, A. H., 1992, “An Experimental Study of Film Cooling in a Rotating Transonic Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-201.
Jones, T. V., and Schultz, D. L., 1971, “Film Cooling Studies in Subsonic and Supersonic Flows Using a Shock Tunnel,” Proc. Eighth International Shock Tube Symposium, London, U. K.
Byerley, A. R., Ireland, P. T., Jones, T. V., and Ashton, S. A., 1988, “Detailed Heat Transfer Measurements Near and Within the Entrance of a Film Cooling Hole,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-155.
Day,  C. R. B., Oldfield,  M. L. G., and Lock,  G. D., 1999, “The Influence of Film Cooling on the Efficiency of an Annular Nozzle Guide Vane Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 145–151.
Yavuzkurt, S., 1985, “Full-Coverage Film Cooling: A One-Equation Model of Turbulence for the Calculation of the Full-Coverage and the Recovery-Region Hydrodynamics,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-119.
Chernobrovkin,  A., and Lakshminarayana,  B., 1999, “Numerical Simulation and Aerothermal Physics of Leading Edge Film Cooling,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 213, Part A, pp. 103–118.
Uzol,  O., and Camci,  C., 2001, “Aerodynamic Loss Characteristics of a Turbine Blade With Trailing Edge Coolant Ejection. Part 2; External Aerodynamics, Total Pressure Losses and Predictions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 238–338.
Sen,  B., Schmidt,  D. L., and Bogard,  D. G., 1996, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 800–806.
Koli,  A., and Bogard,  D. G., 1998, “Effects of Very High Free-Stream Turbulence on the Jet-Mainstream Interaction in a Film Cooling Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 785–790.
Mehendale,  A. B., and Han,  J. C., 1992, “Influence of High Mainstream Turbulence Leading Edge Film Cooling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 707–715.
Ekkad,  S. V., Han,  J. C., and Du,  H., 1988, “Detailed Film Cooling Measurements on a Cylindrical Leading Edge Model: Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence and Coolant Density,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 799–806.
Ekkad,  S. V., Mehendale,  A. B., Han,  J. C., and Lee,  C. P., 1997, “Combined Effect of Grid Turbulence and Unsteady Wake on Film Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Gas Turbine Blade With Air and CO2 Film Injection,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 594–600.
Ligrani,  P. M., and Mitchell,  S. W., 1994, “Effects of Embedded Vortices on Injectant From Film Cooling Holes With Large Spanwise Spacing and Compound Angle Orientations in a Turbulent Boundary Layer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 709–720.
Ligrani,  P. M., and Ramsey,  A. E., 1997, “Film Cooling From Spanwise-Oriented Holes in Two Staggered Rows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 562–567.
Ligrani,  P. M., Gong,  R., and Cuthrell,  J. M., 1997, “Bulk Flow Pulsations and Film Cooling: Flow Structure Just Downstream of the Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 568–573.
Lemmon, C. A., Kohli, A., and Thole, K. A., 1999, “Formation of Counterrotating Vortices in Film Cooling Flows,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-161.
Wilfert,  G., and Fottner,  L., 1996, “The Aerodynamic Mixing Effect of Discrete Cooling Jets With Mainstream Flow on a Highly Loaded Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 468–478.
Hoecker, R., Johnson, B. V., and Hausladen, J., 1999, “Impingement Cooling Experiments With Flat Plate and Pin Plate Target Surfaces,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-252.
Abuaf, N., and Cohn, A., 1988, “Gas Turbine Heat Transfer With Alternate Cooling Flows,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-16.
Buck, F. A., and Prakash, C., 1995, “Design and Evaluation of a Single Passage Test Model to Obtain Turbine Airfoil Film Cooling Effectiveness Data,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-19.
Bunker, R. S., 2000, “Effect of Partial Coating Blockage on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-244.
Takeishi, K., Aoki, S., Sato, T., and Tsukagoshi, K, 1991, “Film Cooling on a Gas Turbine Rotor Blade,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-279.
Heidmann, J. D., 1995, “A Numerical Study of the Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling,” AIAA Paper No. 95–3044.
Garg, V. K., 1999, “Heat Transfer on a Film Cooled Rotating Blade,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-44 (see also “Heat Transfer on a Film Cooled Rotating Blade,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21, 2000, pp. 134–145).
Rigby, M. J., Johnson, A. B., and Oldfield, M. L. G., 1990, “Gas Turbine Rotor Blade Film Cooling With and Without Simulated NGV Shock Waves and Wakes,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-78.
Lander,  R. D., Fish,  R. W., and Suo,  M., 1972, “External Heat Transfer Distribution on Film Cooled Turbine Vanes,” J. Aircr., 9, No. 10, pp. 707–714.
Elovic,  E., and Koffel,  W. K., 1983, “Some Considerations in the Thermal Design of Turbine Airfoil Cooling Systems,” Int. J. Turbo Jet-Engines, 1, pp. 45–65.
Miller, K. L., and Crawford, M. E., 1984, “Numerical Simulation of Single, Double, and Multiple Row Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-112.
Tafti,  D. K., and Yavuzkurt,  S., 1987, “Prediction of Heat Transfer Characteristics for Discrete Hole Film Cooling for Turbine Blade Applications,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109, pp. 504–511.
Neelakantan, S., and Crawford, M. E., 1995, “Prediction of Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Due to Streamwise and Compound Angle Injection on Flat Surfaces,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-151.
Neelakantan, S., and Crawford, M. E., 1996, “Prediction of Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Using a New Two-Dimensional Injection and Dispersion Model of the Film Cooling Process,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-224.
Weigand, B., Bonhoff, B., and Ferguson, J. R., 1997, “A Comparative Study Between 2D Boundary Layer Predictions and 3D Navier-Stokes Calculations for a Film Cooled Vane,” ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, ASME HTD-Vol. 350, pp. 213–221.
Rivir, R. B., Roqumore, W. M., and McCarthy, J. W., 1987, “Visualization of Film Cooling Flows Using Laser Sheet Light,” AIAA Paper No. 87-1914.
Gogineni, S. P., Trump, D. D., Rivir, R. B., and Pestian, D. J., 1996, “PIV Measurements of Periodically Forced Flat Plate Film Cooling Flows With High Free Stream Turbulence,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-236.
Rivir, R. B., and Gogineni, S. P., 1996, “Characteristics of Simulated Turbine Film Cooling Flows,” Proc. Int. Congress on Fluid Dynamics and Propulsion, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 1, pp. 95–107.
Rivir, R. B., Gogineni, S. P., Goss, L. P., and Pestian, D. J., 1997, “The Unsteady Structure of Simulated Turbine Film Cooling Flows From PIV,” Paper No. 47, AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Panel, 90th Symp. Nonintrusive Measurement Techniques for Propulsion Engines, Brussels, Belgium.
Ou, S., Rivir, R., and Meininger, M., 2000, “Transient Liquid Crystal Measurement of Leading Edge Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer With High Free Stream Turbulence,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-245.
Joslyn, H. D., Caspar, J. R., and Dring, R. P., 1985, “Inviscid Modeling of Turbomachinery Wake Transport,” AIAA Paper No. 85-1132.
Cicatelli,  G., and Sieverding,  C. H., 1997, “The Effect of Vortex Shedding on the Unsteady Pressure Distribution Around the Trailing Edge of a Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 810–819.
Hodson,  H. P., and Dawes,  W. N., 1998, “On the Interpretation of Measured Profile Losses in Unsteady Wake—Turbine Blade Interaction Studies,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 276–284.
Pappu, K. R., and Schobeiri, M. T., 1997, “Optimization of Trailing Edge Ejection Mixing Losses: A Theoretical and Experimental Study,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-523.
Schobeiri,  T., 1989, “Optimum Trailing Edge Ejection for Cooled Gas Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 510–514.
Deckers, M., and Denton, J. D., 1997, “The Aerodynamics of Trailing-Edge-Cooled Transonic Turbine Blades: Part 1—Experimental Approach,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-518.
Deckers, M., and Denton, J. D., 1997, “The Aerodynamics of Trailing-Edge-Cooled Transonic Turbine Blades: Part 2—Theoretical and Computational Approach,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-519.
Kapteijn,  C., Amecke,  J., and Michelassi,  V., 1996, “Aerodynamic Performance of a Transonic Turbine Guide Vane With Trailing Edge Coolant Ejection: Part I—Experimental Approach,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 519–528.
Dunn,  M. G., 1986, “Heat Flux Measurements for the Rotor of a Full-Stage Turbine: Part I—Time-Averaged Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 108, pp. 90–97.
Du,  H., Ekkad,  S. V., and Han,  J. C., 1997, “Effect of Unsteady Wake With Trailing Edge Coolant Ejection on Detailed Heat Transfer Coefficient Distributions for a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 119, pp. 242–248.
Du,  H., Ekkad,  S. V., and Han,  J. C., 1999, “Effect of Unsteady Wake With Trailing Edge Coolant Ejection on Film Cooling Performance for a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 448–455.
Abhari, R. S., and Epstein, A. H., 1992, “An Experimental Study of Film Cooling in a Rotating Transonic Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-201.
Goldstein, R. J., and Haji-Sheik, A., 1967, “Prediction of Film Cooling Effectiveness,” Proc. JSME 1967 Semi-International Symposium, pp. 213–218.
Schonung,  B., and Rodi,  W., 1987, “Prediction of Film Cooling by a Row of Holes With a Two-Dimensional Boundary Layer Procedure,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109, pp. 579–587.
Haas,  W., Rodi,  W., and Schonung,  B., 1992, “The Influence of Density Difference Between Hot and Cold Gas on Film Cooling by a Row of Holes: Predictions and Experiments,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 747–755.
Camci,  C., 1989, “An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Near Cooling Hole Heat Fluxes on a Film Cooled Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 63–70.
Garg, V. K., and Gaugler, R. E., 1994, “Prediction of Film Cooling on Gas Turbine Airfoils,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-16.
Garg, V. K., 1997, “Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Heat Transfer on a Film Cooled Rotating Blade Using a Two-Equation Turbulence Model,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-220.
Garg,  V. K., and Gaugler,  R. E., 1997, “Effect of Velocity and Temperature Distribution at the Hole Exit on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 343–351.
Steinthorsson, E., Liou, M. S., and Povinelli, L. A., 1993, “Development of an Explicit Multiblock/Multigrid Flow Solver for Viscous Flows in Complex Geometries,” AIAA Paper No. 93–2380.
Steinthorsson, E., Ameri, A. A., and Rigby, D. L., 1997, “TRAF3D.MB—A Multi-Block Flow Solver for Turbomachinery Flows,” AIAA Paper No. 97–996.
Traci,  R. M., and Wilcox,  D. C., 1975, “Freestream Turbulence Effects on Stagnation Point Heat Transfer,” AIAA J., 13, No. 7, pp. 890–896.
Bayley, F. J., and Priddy, W. J., 1980, “Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence Intensity and Frequency on Heat Transfer to Turbine Blading,” ASME Paper No. 80-GT-79.
Blair,  M. F., 1983, “Influence of Free-Stream Turbulence on Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer and Mean Profile Development, Part I—Experimental Data, and Part II—Analysis of Results,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105, pp. 33–47.
O’Brien, J. E., and VanFlossen, G. J., 1985, “The Influence of Jet-Grid Turbulence on Heat Transfer From the Stagnation Region of a Cylinder in Crossflow,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-58.
Ames, R. E., and Moffat, R. J., 1990, “Heat Transfer With High Intensity Large Scale Turbulence: The Flat Plate Turbulent Boundary Layer and the Cylindrical Stagnation Point,” Report No. HMT-44, Thermosciences Division of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University.
Dullenkopf, K., and Mayle, R. E., 1992, “The Effects of Incident Turbulence and Moving Wakes on Laminar Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-377.
Thole,  K. A., and Bogard,  D. G., 1995, “Enhanced Heat Transfer and Shear Stress Due to High Free-Stream Turbulence,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 418–424.
Ames,  F. E., 1997, “The Influence of Large-Scale High-Intensity Turbulence on Vane Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 23–30.
Yavuzkurt,  S., 1997, “Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence on the Instantaneous Heat Transfer in a Wall Jet Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 359–417.
Ames, F. E., Kwon, O., and Moffat, R. J., 1999, “An Algebraic Model for High Intensity Large Scale Turbulence,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-160.
Moore, J. G., and Moore, J., 1999, “Realizability in Turbulence Modelling for Turbomachinery CFD,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-24.
Volino,  R. J., 1998, “A New Model for Free-Stream Turbulence Effects on Boundary Layers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 613–620.
Van Flossen,  G. J., and Bunke,  R. S., 2001, “Augmentation of Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Due to Turbulence From a DLN Can Combustor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 140–146
Moss, R. W., and Oldfield, M. L. G., 1992, “Measurement of the Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence Length Scale on Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-244.
Dullenkopf,  K., and Mayle,  R. E., 1995, “An Account of Free-Stream Turbulence Length Scale on Laminar Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 401–406.
Burd,  S. W., and Simon,  T. W., 1999, “Turbulence Spectra and Length Scales Measured in Film Coolant Flows Emerging From Discrete Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 551–557.
Walker, G. J., 1992, “The Role of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Gas Turbine Engines: A Discussion,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-301.
Addison, J. S., and Hodson, H. P., 1991, “Modelling of Unsteady Transitional Boundary Layers,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-282.
Ameri,  A. A., and Arnone,  A., 1996, “Transition Modeling Effects on Turbine Rotor Blade Heat Transfer Predictions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, No. 4.
Blair, M. F., 1991, “The Effects of Reynolds Number, Rotor Incidence Angle, and Surface Roughness on the Heat Transfer Distribution in a Large Scale Turbine Rotor,” UTRC Report No. R91-970057-3.
Halstead,  D. E., Wisler,  D. C., Okiishi,  T. H., Walker,  G. J., Hodson,  H. P., and Shin,  H-W., 1997, “Boundary Layer Development in Axial Compressors and Turbines: Part 1 of 4—Composite Picture, ” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 114–127.“Part 2 of 4—Compressors,” 119, pp. 426–444; “Part 3 of 4—LP Turbines,” 119, pp. 225–237; “Part 4 of 4—Computations and Analyses119, pp. 128–139.
Emmons,  H. W., 1951, “The Laminar–Turbulent Transition in a Boundary Layer—Part I,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 18, No. 7, pp. 490–498.
Tiedemann, M., and Kost, F., 1999, “Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition on a High Pressure Turbine Rotor Blade,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-194.
Volino,  R. J., and Simon,  T. W., 1995, “Bypass Transition in Boundary Layers Including Curvature and Favorable Pressure Gradient Effects,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 166–174.
Clark,  J. P., Jones,  T. V., and LaGraff,  J. E., 1994, “On the Propagation of Naturally Occurring Turbulent Spots,” J. Eng. Math., 38, pp. 1–19.
Boyle,  R. J., and Simon,  F. F., 1999, “Mach Number Effects on Turbine Blade Transition Length Prediction,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 694–702.
Simon,  F. F., 1995, “The Use of Transition Region Characteristics to Improve the Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Bypass Transitional Flows,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2, No. 2, pp. 93–102.
Solomon, W. J., Walker, G. J., and Gostelow, J. P., 1995, “Transition Length Prediction for Flows With Rapidly Changing Pressure Gradient,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-241.
Rivir, R. B., Elrod, W. C., and Dunn, M. G., 1985, “Two Spot Laser Velocimeter Measurements of Velocity and Turbulence Intensity in Shock Tube Driven Turbine Flows,” AGARD Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines, Conference Proc. No. 390, pp. 33-1 to 33-12, Bergen, Norway.
Kadotani,  K., and Goldstein,  R. J., 1979, “On the Nature of Jets Entering a Turbulent Flow: Part A. Jet-Mainstream Interaction and Part B. Film Cooling Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 101, pp. 459–470.
Bons, J. P., MacArthur, C. D., and Rivir, R. B., 1994, “The Effect of High Free-Stream Turbulence on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-51.
Bons, J. P., Rivir, R. B., and MacArthur, C. D., 1995, “The Effect of Unsteadiness on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” AIAA Paper No. 95–306.
Drost, U., and Bolcs, A., 1999, “Performance of a Turbine Airfoil With Multiple Film Cooling Stations. Part I: Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-171.
Takeishi,  K., Matsuura,  M., Aoki,  S., and Sato,  T., 1990, “An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling on Low Aspect Ratio Turbine Nozzles,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 488–496.
Granser, D., and Schulenberg, T., 1990, “Prediction and Measurement of Film Cooling Effectiveness for a First-Stage Turbine Vane Shroud,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-95.
Friedrichs, S., Hodson, H. P., and Dawes, W. N., 1995, “Distribution of Film Cooling Effectiveness on a Turbine Endwall Measured Using the Ammonia and Diazo Technique,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-1.
Mehendale,  A. B., Han,  J. C., Ou,  S., and Lee,  C. P., 1994, “Unsteady Wake Over a Linear Turbine Blade Cascade With Air and CO2 Film Injection: Part II—Effect on Film Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Distributions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp 730–737.
Funazaki, K., Yokota, M., and Yamawaki, S., 1995, “Effect of Periodic Wake Passing on Film Effectiveness of Discrete Cooling Holes Around the Leading Edge of a Blunt Body,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-183.
Du,  H., Han,  J. C., and Ekkad,  S. V., 1998, “Effect of Unsteady Wake on Detailed Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film Effectiveness Distributions for a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 808–817.
Baughn, J. W., Butler, R. J., Byerley, A. R., and Rivir, R. B., 1995, “An Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer, Transition, and Separation on Turbine Blades at Low Reynolds Number and High Turbulence Intensity,” ASME Paper No. 95-WA/HT-25.
Maciejewski, P. K., and Rivir, R. B., 1994, “Effects of Surface Riblets and Free-Stream Turbulence on Heat Transfer in a Linear Turbine Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-245.
Welsh, S. T., Barlow, D. N., Butler, R. J., VanTreuren, K. W., Byerley, A. R., and Baughn, J. W., 1997, “Effect of Passive and Active Air Jet Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-131.
Binder, A., Schroeder, T., and Hourmouziadis, J., 1988, “Turbulence Measurements in a Multistage Low-Pressure Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-79.
Hodson, H. P., 1998, “Bladerow Interactions in Low Pressure Turbines,” Blade Row Interference Effects in Axial Turbomachinery Stages, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Lecture Series 1998–02.
Arndt, N., 1991, “Blade Row Interaction in a Multistage Low-Pressure Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-283.
Sharma, O., 1998, “Impact of Reynolds Number on LP Turbine Performance,” Minnowbrook Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines, J. E. LaGraff and D. E. Ashpis, eds.; pp. 65–69 (see also NASA/CP-1998-206958).
Hourmouziadis, J., Buckl, F., and Bergmann, P., 1986, “The Development of the Profile Boundary Layer in a Turbine Environment,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-244.
Hodson, H. P., Huntsman, I., and Steele, A. B., 1993, “An Investigation of Boundary Layer Development in a Multistage LP Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-310.
Schulte,  V., and Hodson,  H. P., 0 1998, “Unsteady Wake-Induced Boundary Layer Transition in High Lift LP Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 28–35.
Rivir, R. B., 1996, “Transition on Turbine Blades and Cascades at Low Reynolds Numbers,” AIAA Paper No. 96–2079.
Murawski, C. G., Sondergaard, R., Rivir, R. B., Vafi, K, Simon, T. W., and Volino, R. J., 1997, “Experimental Study of the Unsteady Aerodynamics in a Linear Cascade With Low Reynolds Number Low Pressure Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-95.
Solomon, W. J., 2000, “Effects of Turbulence and Solidity on the Boundary Layer Development in a Low Pressure Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0273.
Rivir, R. B., Sondergaard, R., Bons, J. P., and Lake, J. P., 2000, “Application of Longitudinal Vortices for Control of Separation in Turbine Boundary Layers,” International Workshop Organized Vortical Motion as a Basis for Boundary-Layer Control, Kiev, Ukraine, Sept. 20–22.
Rivir, R. B., Sondergaard, R., Bons, J. P., and Lake, J. P., 2000, “Passive and Active Control of Separation in Gas Turbines,” AIAA Paper No. 2000–2235.
Bons,  J. P., Sondergaard,  R., and Rivir,  R. B., 2001, “Turbine Separation Control Using Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 198–206.
Lake, J. P., King, P. I., and Rivir, R. B., 2000, “Low Reynolds Number Loss Reduction on Turbine Blades With Dimples and V -Grooves,” AIAA Paper No. 00–738.
Wisler, D. C., 2000, private communication, 10 Oct.
Howell,  R., Ramesh,  O., and Hodson,  H. P., 2001, “High Lift and Aft Loaded Profiles for Low Pressure Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 181–188.
Sharma,  O. P., Wells,  R. A., Schlinker,  R. H., and Bailey,  D. A., 1982, “Boundary Layer Development on Turbine Airfoil Suction Surfaces,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 698–706.
Hourmouziadis, J., 1989, “Aerodynamic Design of Low Pressure Turbines,” AGARD Lecture Series 167.
Curtis,  E. M., Hodson,  H. P., Banieghbal,  M. R., Denton,  J. D., and Howell,  R. J., 1997, “Development of Blade Profiles for Low Pressure Turbine Applications,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 531–538.
Cobley, K., Coleman, N., Siden, G., and Arndt, N., 1997, “Design of New Three Stage Low Pressure Turbine for the BMW Rolls Royce BR715 Turbofan Engine,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-419.
Qiu, S., and Simon, T. W., 1997, “An Experimental Investigation of Transition as Applied to Low Pressure Turbine Suction Surface Flows,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-455.
Bons, J. P., Sondergaard, R., and Rivir, R. B., 1999, “Control of Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Using Vortex Generator Jets,” AIAA Paper No. 99-367.
Blair, M. F., and Anderson, O. L., 1989, “The Effect of Reynolds Number, Rotor Incidence Angle and Surface Roughness on the Heat Transfer Distribution in Large-Scale Turbine Rotor Passage,” United Technologies Research Center, Report UTRC-R89-957852-24.
Boyle, R. J., and Civinskas, K. C., 1991, “Two-Dimensional Navier–Stokes Heat Transfer Analysis for Rough Turbine Blades,” AIAA Paper No. 91-2129.
Taylor, R. P., Taylor, J. K., Hosni, M. H., and Coleman, H. W., 1991, “Heat Transfer in the Turbulent Boundary Layer With a Step Change in Surface Roughness,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-266.
Blair,  M. F., 1994, “An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in a Large-Scale Turbine Rotor Passage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 1–13.
Boynton,  J. L., Tabibzadeh,  R., and Hudson,  S. T., 1993, “Investigation of Rotor Blade Roughness Effects on Turbine Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 614–620.
Boyle,  R. J., 1994, “Prediction of Surface Roughness and Incidence Effects on Turbine Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 745–751.
Cebeci,  T., and Chang,  X. X., 1978, “Calculation of Incompressible Rough-Wall Boundary Layer Flows,” AIAA J., 16, No. 7, pp. 730–735.
Goldstein,  R. J., Eckert,  E. R. G., Chiang,  H. D., and Elovic,  E., 1985, “Effect of Surface Roughness on Film Cooling Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 111–116.
Hippensteele, S. A., Russell, L. M., and Torres, F. J., 1987, “Use of a Liquid-Crystal, Heater-Element Composite for Quantitative, High-Resolution Heat Transfer Coefficients on a Turbine Airfoil, Including Turbulence and Surface Roughness Effects,” NASA TM-87355.
Barlow,  D. N., Kim,  Y. W., and Florschuetz,  L. W., 1994, “Transient Liquid Crystal Technique for Convective Heat Transfer on Rough Surfaces,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 14–22.
Hoffs, A., Drost, U., and Bolcs, A., 1996, “Heat Transfer Measurements on a Turbine Airfoil at Various Reynolds Numbers and Turbulence Intensities Including Effects of Surface Roughness,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-169.
Bogard,  D. G., Schmidt,  D. L., and Tabbita,  M., 1998, “Characterization and Laboratory Simulation of Turbine Airfoil Surface Roughness and Associated Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 337–342.
Guo,  S. M., Jones,  T. V., Lock,  G. D., and Dancer,  S. N., 1998, “Computational Prediction of Heat Transfer to Gas Turbine Nozzle Guide Vanes With Roughened Surfaces,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 343–350.
Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., and Bogard, D. G., 1996, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-299.
Kind,  R. J., Serjak,  P. J., and Abbott,  M. W. P., 1998, “Measurement and Prediction of the Effects of Surface Roughness on Profile Losses and Deviation in a Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 20–27.
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Tolpadi, A. K., and Crawford, M. E., 1998, “Predictions of the Effect of Roughness on Heat Transfer From Turbine Airfoils,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-87.
Boyle,  R. J., Lucci,  B. L., Spuckler,  C. M., and Camperchioli,  W. P., 2001, “Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 168–177.
Boyle, R. J., Lucci, B. L., and Spuckler, C. M., 2000, “Comparison of Predicted and Measured Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0217.
Taylor,  R. P., Coleman,  H. W., and Hodge,  B. K., 1985, “Predictions of Turbulent Rough-Wall Skin Friction Using a Discrete Element Approach,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107, pp. 251–257.
Tarada,  F., 1990, “Prediction of Rough Wall Boundary Layers Using a Low Reynolds Number k-ε Turbulence Model,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 11, pp. 331–345.
Weigand, B., Crawford, M. E., and Lutum, E., 1998, “A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Surface Roughness on Film Cooling,” ISROMAC-7, Honolulu, HI.
Richter, R., and Gottschlich, J. M., 1990, “Thermodynamic Aspects of Heat Pipe Operation,” AIAA Paper No. 90-1772.
Anderson, W. G., Hoff, S., and Winstanley, D., 1993, “Heat Pipe Cooling of Turboshaft Engines,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-220.
Silverstein, C. C., Gottschlich, J. M., and Meininger, M., 1994, “The Feasibility of Heat Pipe Turbine Vane Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-306.
Zuo, Z. J., Faghri, A., and Langston, L., 1996, “Numerical Analysis of Heat Pipe Turbine Vane Cooling,” Third Biennial ASME European Joint Conference on Engineering System Design and Analysis, ASME PD-Vol. 78, No. 6.
Zuo, Z. J., Faghri, A., and Langston, L., 1997, “A Parametric Study of Heat Pipe Turbine Vane Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-443.
Yamawaki,  S., Yoshidi,  T., Taki,  M., and Mimura,  F., 1998, “Fundamental Heat Transfer Experiments of Heat Pipes for Turbine Cooling,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120, pp. 580–587.
Tagashira, T., and Yoshida, T., 1999, “Consideration on Gas Turbine Performance Improvement by an Advanced Cooling System,” presented at the 14th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Florence, Italy.
Yoshida, T., 2000, “Cooling Systems for Ultra-High Temperature Turbines,” Proc. Int. Center for Heat and Mass Transfer Turbine 2000, Keynote Lecture, Cesme, Izmir, Turkey.
Han,  J. C., 1984, “Heat Transfer and Friction in Channels With Two Opposite Rib-Roughened Walls,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, pp. 774–781.
Han,  J. C., 1988, “Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics in Rectangular Channels With Rib Turbulators,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 321–328.
Han,  J. C., and Zhang,  Y. M., 1991, “Effect of Rib-Angle Orientation on Local Mass Transfer Distribution in a Three-Pass Rib-Roughened Channel,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 123–130.
Han,  J. C., Zhang,  Y. M., and Lee,  C. P., 1992, “Influence of Surface Heat Flux Ratio on Heat Transfer Augmentation in Square Channels With Parallel, Crossed, and V-Shaped Angled Ribs,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 872–880.
Hedlund,  C. R., Ligrani,  P. M., Moon,  H.-K., and Glezer,  B., 1998, “Heat Transfer and Flow Phenomena in a Swirl Chamber Simulating Turbine Blade Internal Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 804–813.
Taslim,  M. E., Li,  T., and Spring,  S. D., 1995, “Experimental Study of the Effects of Bleed Holes on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Trapezoidal Passages With Tapered Turbulators,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 281–289.
Taslim,  M. E., and Wadsworth,  C. M., 1997, “An Experimental Investigation of the Rib Surface-Averaged Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Rib-Roughened Square Passage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 381–389.
Taslim,  M. E., Li,  T., and Spring,  S. D., 1998, “Measurement of Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in Rib-Roughened Channels Simulating Leading-Edge Cavities of a Modern Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 601–609.
Taslim,  M. E., Li,  T., and Spring,  S. D., 1998, “Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in Passages Rib-Roughened on All Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 564–570.
Taslim,  M. E., Li,  T., and Kercher,  D. M., 1996, “Experimental Heat Transfer and Friction in Channels Roughened With Angled, V-Shaped, and Discrete Ribs on Two Opposite Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 20–28.
Wang,  Z., Ireland,  P. T., Kohler,  S. T., and Chew,  J. W., 1998, “Heat Transfer Measurements to a Gas Turbine Cooling Passage With Inclined Ribs,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 63–69.
Becker, B. R., and Rivir, R. B., 1989, “Computation of the Flow Field and Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Passage With a Turbulator,” ASME Paper No. 89-GT-30.
Abuaf,  N., and Kercher,  D. M., 1994, “Heat Transfer and Turbulence in a Turbulated Blade Cooling Circuit,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 169–177.
Shen,  J. R., Wang,  Z., Ireland,  P. T., Jones,  T. V., and Byerley,  A., 1996, “Heat Transfer Enhancement Within a Turbine Blade Cooling Passage Using Ribs and Combinations of Ribs With Film Cooling Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 428–434.
Hwang,  J.-J., and Liou,  T.-M., 1997, “Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Rectangular Channel With Slit Rib-Turbulators on Two Opposite Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 617–623.
Mochizuki,  S., Murata,  A., and Fukunaga,  M., 1997, “Effects of Rib Arrangements on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Rib-Roughened Channel With a Sharp 180 deg Turn,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 610–616.
Hibbs,  R. G., Acharya,  S., Chen,  Y., Nikitopoulos,  D. E., and Myrum,  T. A., 1998, “Heat Transfer in a Two-Pass Internally Ribbed Turbine Blade Coolant Channel With Cylindrical Vortex Generators,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 589–600.
Rivir,  R. B., Chyu,  M. K., and Maciejewski,  P. K., 1996, “Turbulence and Scale Measurements in a Square Channel With Transverse Square Ribs,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2, No. 3, pp. 209–218.
Rigby, D. L., 1998, “Prediction of Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Ribbed Coolant Passage With a 180 Degree Turn,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-329.
Prakash,  C., and Zerkle,  R., 1992, “Prediction of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in a Radially Rotating Duct,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 835–844.
Owen,  J. M., Pincombe,  J. R., and Rogers,  R. H., 1985, “Source-Sink Flow Inside a Rotating Cylindrical Cavity,” J. Fluid Mech., 155, pp. 233–265.
Owen, J. M., and Rogers, R. H., 1989, Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating-Disc Systems, Vol. 1: Rotor–Stator Systems, Research Studies Press, Taunton, UK; Wiley, New York.
El-Oun,  Z., and Owen,  J. M., 1989, “Pre-swirl Blade-Cooling Effectiveness in an Adiabatic Rotor–Stator System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 522–529.
Ong,  C. L., and Owen,  J. M., 1991, “Prediction of Heat Transfer in a Rotating Cavity With a Radial Outflow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 115–122.
Gan,  X., Kilic,  M., and Owen,  J. M., 1995, “Flow Between Contrarotating Disks,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 298–305.
Chen,  J.-X., Gan,  X., and Owen,  J. M., 1997, “Heat Transfer From Air-Cooled Contrarotating Disks,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 61–67.
Owen, J. M., and Rogers, R. H., 1995, Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating-Disc Systems, Vol. 2: Rotor–Stator Systems, Research Studies Press, Taunton, UK; Wiley, New York.
Wilson,  M., Pilbrow,  R., and Owen,  J. M., 1997, “Flow and Heat Transfer in a Preswirl Rotor–Stator System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 364–373.
Karabay,  H., Chen,  J.-X., Pibrow,  R., Wilson,  M., and Owen,  J. M., 1999, “Flow in a ‘Cover-Plate’ Preswirl Rotor–Stator System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 160–166.
Mirzaee,  I., Gan,  X., Wilson,  M., and Owen,  J. M., 1998, “Heat Transfer in a Rotating Cavity With a Peripheral Inflow and Outflow of Cooling Air,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 818–823.
Bohn,  D., Deuker,  E., Emunds,  R., and Gorzelitz,  V., 1995, “Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Heat Transfer in Closed Gas-Filled Annuli,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 175–183.
Bohn, D., Kruger, U., and Nitsche, K., 1995, “Numerical Investigation of Flow Pattern and Heat Transfer in a Rotating Cavity Between Two Discs of the Compressor of a Siemens KWU V84.3 Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-144.
Bohn,  D., and Gier,  J., 1998, “The Effect of Turbulence on the Heat Transfer in Closed Gas-Filled Rotating Annuli,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 824–830.
Bohn, D., Rudzinski, B., Surken, N., and Gartner, W., 1999, “Influence of Rim Seal Geometry on Hot Gas Ingestion Into the Upstream Cavity of an Axial Turbine Stage,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-248.
Chen,  J.-X., Gan,  X., and Owen,  J. M., 1996, “Heat Transfer in an Air-Cooled Rotor-Stator System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 444–451.
Steltz, W. G., 1987, “Generalized Transient Rotor Thermal Stress,” Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Rotating Machinery, Hemisphere Publishing Co.
Long,  C. A., Morse,  A. P., and Zafiropoulos,  N., 1995, “Buoyancy-Affected Flow and Heat Transfer in Asymmetrically Heated Rotating Cavities,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 461–473.
Guo,  Z., and Rhode,  D. L., 1996, “Assessment of Two- and Three-Scale k-ε Models for Rotating Cavity Flows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 826–834.
Roy, R. P., Devasenathipathy, S., Xu, G., and Zhao, Y., 1999, “A Study of the Flow Field in a Model Rotor–Stator Disk Cavity,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-246.
Han,  J. C., Zang,  Y. M., and Lee,  C. P., 1994, “Influence of Surface Heating Condition on Local Heat Transfer in a Rotating Square Channel With Smooth Walls and Radial Outward Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 149–158.
Wagner,  J. H., Johnson,  B. V., and Hajek,  T., 1991, “Heat Transfer in Rotating Passages With Smooth Walls and Radial Outward Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 42–51.
Wagner,  J. H., Johnson,  B. V., and Kopper,  F. C., 1991, “Heat Transfer in Rotating Serpentine Passages With Smooth Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 321–330.
Wagner,  J. H., Johnson,  B. V., Graziani,  R. A., and Yeh,  F. C., 1992, “Heat Transfer in Rotating Serpentine Passages With Trips Normal to the Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 847–857.
Johnson,  B. V., Wagner,  J. H., Steuber,  G. D., and Yeh,  F. C., 1994, “Heat Transfer in Rotating Serpentine Passages With Trips Skewed to the Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 113–123.
Dutta,  S., Han,  J.-C., Zhang,  Y., Lee,  C. P., 1996, “Local Heat Transfer in a Rotating Two-Pass Triangular Duct With Smooth Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 435–443.
Han,  J. C., Zang,  Y. M., and Kalkuehler,  K., 1993, “Uneven Wall Temperature Effect on Local Heat Transfer in a Rotating Two-Pass Square Channel With Smooth Walls,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115, pp. 912–920.
Bons,  J. P., and Kerrebrock,  J. L., 1999, “Complementary Velocity and Heat Transfer Measurements in a Rotating Cooling Passage With Smooth Walls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 651–662.
Glezer, B., Moon, H. K., Kerrebrock, J., Bons, J., and Guenette, G., 1998, “Heat Transfer in a Rotating Radial Channel With Swirling Internal Flow,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-214.
Glezer, B., Moon, H. K., and O’Connell, T., 1996, “A Novel Technique for the Internal Blade Cooling,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-181.
Kercher,  D. M., and Tabakoff,  W., 1970, “Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Air Jets Impinging Perpendicular to a Flat Surface Including the Effect of Spent Air,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 92, No. 1, pp. 73–82.
Moore, J., 1968, “Effects of Coriolis on Turbulent Flow in Rotating Rectangular Channels,” MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory Report No. 89.
Mori,  Y., and Nakayama,  W., 1968, “Convective Heat Transfer in Rotating Radial Circular Pipes,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21, pp. 1027–1040.
Ito,  H., and Nanbu,  K., 1971, “Flow in Rotating Straight Pipes of Circular Cross Section,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 93, pp. 383–394.
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Dawes,  W. N., 1994, “The Solution-Adaptive Numerical Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow in the Serpentine Coolant Passage of a Radial Inflow Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 141–148.
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Figures

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Vane and blade time-mean pressure at 20 percent spacing 31
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Vane and blade time-mean pressure at 60 percent spacing 31
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Vane and blade time-mean pressure at 20 percent spacing, three-dimensional calculation 31
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Predicted versus measured unsteady pressure envelope at 20 percent vane/blade spacing 31
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Predicted versus measured unsteady pressure envelope at 60 percent vane/blade spacing 31
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Predicted versus measured time-averaged surface pressure for vane and blade at 20 percent vane/blade spacing 32
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Magnitude and phase of unsteady surface pressure on blade at vane passing frequency 32
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Magnitude and phase of unsteady surface pressure on blade at 2× vane passing frequency 32
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Predicted versus measured time-averaged surface pressure for HPT vane and blade at midspan 34
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Predicted versus measured unsteady surface pressure envelope at 75 percent span for LPT blade 34
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Predicted versus measured unsteady surface pressure history at 50 percent span and 21 percent wetted distance on suction surface 34
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Predicted versus measured unsteady surface pressure on LPT blade at 50 percent span and 21 percent wetted distance on suction surface 34
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Predicted versus measured surface pressure for blade at 50 percent span, TFE-731 64
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(a) Influence of combustion on exit plane turbulence intensity for low-swirl geometry 89; (b) Influence of combustion on exit plane turbulence intensity for high-swirl geometry 89; (c) Exit plane radial turbulence intensity for high-swirl geometry 89
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for Rolls-Royce ACE blade 134
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for Allison VBI 187
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for Allison VBI blade, 187
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Predicted versus measured heat flux distribution for GE vane 189
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Predicted versus measured heat flux distribution for GE blade 189
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Predicted versus measured heat flux distribution for GE blade, three-dimensional 189
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Comparison of measured surface pressure with measured surface heat flux near blade stagnation point 187
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Comparison of measured surface pressure with measured surface heat flux on blade pressure surface near stagnation point 187
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Predicted versus measured unsteady Nusselt number for blade surface 187
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for an uncooled Rolls Royce ACE turbine blade 238
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for a cooled Rolls Royce ACE turbine blade; case #71 238
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Two-dimensional and three-dimensional predictions versus measured Nusselt number distribution for cooled blade of Rolls Royce ACE turbine, case #71 238
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Predicted versus measured heat transfer coefficient for cooled blade of Rolls Royce ACE turbine 324
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Predicted versus measured Stanton number distribution for blade 66
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Predicted versus measured Nusselt number distribution for blade, various Reynolds numbers 161
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Influence of stagnation point initial profiles on blade heat transfer distribution, TFE-731 179
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Predicted versus measured Stanton number distribution for TFE 731-2 vane and blade, 179

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