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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Measurements in a Turbine Cascade Flow Under Ultra Low Reynolds Number Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenneth W. Van Treuren

Department of Engineering, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798-7536

Terrence Simon

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

Marc von Koller

Bundesamt fur Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung, Koblenz, Germany

Aaron R. Byerley

Department of Aeronautics, USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO 80840

James W. Baughn

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Richard Rivir

Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, Wright Laboratories, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433

J. Turbomach 124(1), 100-106 (Feb 01, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1415736 History: Received February 01, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Rivir, R. B., 1996, “Transition on Turbine Blades and Cascades at Low Reynolds Numbers,” AIAA Paper No. 96-2079.
LeGraff, J. E., and Ashpis, D. E., eds., 1998, “Minnowbrook II—Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines,” NASA Conference Publication 206958.
Narasimha, R., 1998, “Minnowbrook II—Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines,” NASA Conference Publication 206958, pp. 485–495.
LeGraff, J. E., and Ashpis, D. E., eds., 2000, “Minnowbrook III—Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines,” to be published as a NASA Conference Publication.
Lake, J. P., 1999, “Flow Separation Prevention on a Turbine Blade in Cascade at Low Reynolds Number,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology, Air University, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Simon, X. X., 1999, private communication with industry.
Bearman,  P. W., and Harvey,  J. K., 1993, “Control of Circular Cylinder Flow by the Use of Dimples,” AIAA J., 31, No 10, pp. 1753–1756.
Lake, J. P., King, P. I., and Rivir, R. B., 2000, “Low Reynolds Number Loss Reduction on Turbine Blades With Dimples and V-Grooves,” AIAA Paper No. 00-0738.
Johnston, J., and Nishi, M., 1989, “Vortex Generator Jets—A Means for Passive and Active Control of Boundary Layer Separation,” AIAA Paper No. 89-0564.
Compton, D. A., and Johnston, J. P., 1991, “Streamwise Vortex Production by Pitched and Skewed Jets in a Turbulent Boundary Layer,” AIAA Paper No. 91-0038.
Selby, G., 1990, “Experimental Parametric Study of Jet Vortex Generators for Flow Separation Control,” NASA-CR-187836 (Library No N91-16296).
Bons, J. P., Sondergaard, R., and Rivir, R. B., 1999, “Control of Low Pressure Turbine Separation Using Vortex Generator Jets,” AIAA Paper No. 99-0367.
Lin, J. C., Howard, F. G., and Selby, G. V., 1989, “Turbulent Flow Separation Control Through Passive Techniques,” AIAA Paper No. 89-0976.
Lin, J. C., 1999, “Control of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Separation Using Micro-Vortex Generators,” AIAA Paper No. 99-3404.
Miller, G. E., 1995, “Comparative Performance Tests on the MOD-2, 2.5-MW Wind Turbine With and Without Vortex Generators,” N 95-27970, DASCON Engineering, Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology p. 67–77. Presented at the DOE/NASA Workshop on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Technology, May 8–10, 1984 in Cleveland, OH.
Nickerson, J. D., 1986, “A Study of Vortex Generators at Low Reynolds Numbers,” AIAA Paper No. 86-0155
Rao, D. M., and Kariya, T. T., 1988, “Boundary-Layer Submerged Vortex Generators for Separation Control—An Exploratory Study,” AIAA Paper No. 88-3546CP.
Welsh, S. T., Barlow, D. N., Butler, R. J., Van Treuren, K. W., Byerley, A R., Baughn, J. W., and Rivir, R. B., 1997, “Effect of Passive and Active Air-Jet Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-131.
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Butler,  R. J., Byerley,  A. R., Van Treuren,  K. W., and Baughn,  J. W., 2001, “The Effect of Turbulence Intensity and Length Scale on Low Pressure Turbine Blade Aerodynamics,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 20, No. 2, pp. 123–133.
Kline,  S. J., and McKlintock,  F. A., 1953, “Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 75, Jan., pp. 3–8.

Figures

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Cp plot using hot-wire velocity to normalize Cp
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Loss coefficient ReNASA=24 K
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Linear cascade facility at the United States Air Force Academy
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Detail of loss coefficient pitot rake
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Vortex generators and template
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Passage flow for ReNASA 28 K and 1 percent FSTI—a sketch showing observations with tuft
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Flow region shown by tufts located at the 40 (top), 70 (middle), and 90 percent (bottom) suction surface length positions as measured from the leading edge; ReNASA ∼28,000; 1 percent FSTI
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Cp plot for ReNASA=28,000, FSTI ∼1 percent; the “earlier data” were taken under similar conditions but several months prior to the current tests
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Loss coefficient for ReNASA=28 K, FSTI ∼1 percent
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Passage flow for ReNASA 24 K and 9 percent FSTI—a sketch showing observations with tuft
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Upper photo shows separated flow region on the pressure surface. Bottom photo shows the unsteady separated flow region near the trailing edge of the blade on the suction surface. ReNASA ∼24,000; FSTI ∼1 percent.
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Cp plot for low ReNASA with FSTI 1 and 9 percent
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Cp plot for ReNASA=59 K; FSTI ∼1 percent with vortex generators
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Loss coefficient ReNASA=54 K; FSTI ∼1 percent

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