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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Axial Compressor Aerodesign Evolution at General Electric

[+] Author and Article Information
Leroy H. Smith

GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH 45215e-mail: leroy.smith@ae.ge.com

J. Turbomach 124(3), 321-330 (Jul 10, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1486219 History: Received November 14, 2001; Revised April 02, 2002; Online July 10, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Keller, C., 1934, “Axialgebläse vom Standpunkt der Tragflügeltheorie,” dissertation, ETH.
Constant,  H., 1945, “Early History of the Axial Type of Gas Turbine Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 153, pp. 411–426.
Wright, L. C., and Novak, R. A., 1960, “Aerodynamic Design and Development of the General Electric CJ805-23 Aft Fan Component,” ASME Paper 60-WA-270.
Smith,  L. H., 1966, “The Radial-Equilibrium Equation of Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 88, pp. 1–12.
Smith, L. H., Jr., 1974, “Some Aerodynamic Design Considerations for High Bypass Ratio Fans,” 2nd ISABE Conf., Sheffield, UK.
Adkins,  G. G., and Smith,  L. H., 1982, “Spanwise Mixing in Axial-Flow Turbomachines,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 97–110.
Wisler,  D. C., Bauer,  R. C., and Okiishi,  T. H., 1987, “Secondary Flow, Turbulent Diffusion, and Mixing in Axial-Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109, pp. 455–482.
Weinig, F., 1934, “Über die Winkelübertreibung von Turbinenschaufeln,” Sonderdruck aus Wasserkraft und Wasserwirtschaft, Heft 3.
Klapproth,  J. F., 1959, Discussion of “Loss and Stall Analysis of Compressor Cascades,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 81, p. 398.
Smith,  L. H., and Yeh,  H., 1963, “Sweep and Dihedral Effects in Axial-Flow Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 185, pp. 401–416.
Wislicenus, G. F., 1986, “Preliminary Design of Turbopumps and Related Machinery,” NASA Ref. Pub. 1170, Section 2.5.5, p. 114.
Wisler,  D. C., 1985, “Loss Reduction in Axial-Flow Compressors Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 354–363.
Isay,  W. H., 1953, “Contribution to Potential Flow in Axial Blade Cascades,” thesis Z. Angew. Math. Mech., 33, pp. 397–409.
Lieblein, S., Schwenk, F. C., and Broderick, R. L., 1953, “Diffusion Factor for Estimating Losses and Limiting Blade Loadings in Axial-Flow-Compressor Blade Elements,” NACA RM E53D01.
Smith, L. H., Jr., 1970, “Casing Boundary Layers in Multistage Axial-Flow Compressors,” Flow Research on Blading, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 275–304.
Gibson,  A. H., 1911, “On the Resistance to Flow of Water through Pipes or Passages having Divergent Boundaries,” Trans. R. Soc. Edinbrgh, XLVIII, Part I, No. 5, p. 97.
Smith,  L. H., 1958, “Recovery Ratio—A Measure of the Loss Recovery Potential of Compressor Stages,” Trans. ASME, 80, pp. 517–524.
Cumpsty, N. A., 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Scientific and Technical, England, and John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, Sect. 2.2, p. 62.
Koch,  C. C., 1981, “Stalling Pressure Rise Capability of Axial Flow Compressor Stages,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 103, pp. 645–656.
Koch,  C. C., and Smith,  L. H., 1976, “Loss Sources and Magnitudes in Axial-Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98, pp. 411–424.
Smith,  L. H., 1994, “NASA/GE Fan and Compressor Research Accomplishments,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 555–569.
St. Peter, J., 1999, The History of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Development in the United States, International Gas Turbine Institute, ASME, Atlanta, GA.
GE Aircraft Engines, 1990, Eight Decades of Progress, Graphica, Dayton, Ohio, Library of Congress 90-082948.

Figures

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Compressor vector diagram calculation methods
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14 Stage Research Compressor rotor inlet swirl and axial velocity distributions
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J53 Compressor rotor inlet swirl and axial velocity distributions
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Methods used for design of series airfoils
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Airfoil custom tailoring methods
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Departure angle definition
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Circumferential-average meridional mach numbers in transonic rotor. Note overspeed at part-span shroud.
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Blade contoured at shroud to match circumferential-average flow angles
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Projected streamsurface geometry showing free-flow streamline and key area locations
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Throat area/capture area ratios for 12 streamlines at the design point
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Consequences of off-design operation for one streamline
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Internal contraction causes shock unstart at reduced speed
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Passage exit area needs to be large enough to provide subsonic diffusion to exit Mach number
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J93 Compressor flowpath. Note high aspect ratios.
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Low-speed research compressor tests showed significant aspect ratio effects
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Aspect ratio and solidity combinations tested
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Stall pressure rise correlation
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Dynamic pressure factor definition; stator example shown
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Test polytropic efficiencies compared with values calculated using CUS5 Code for GE multistage compressors designed before CFD

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