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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effect of Unsteady Stator Wake—Rotor Double-Leakage Tip Clearance Flow Interaction on Time-Average Compressor Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Borislav Todorov Sirakov, Choon-Sooi Tan

MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Turbomach 125(3), 465-474 (Aug 27, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1574822 History: Received January 01, 2002; Revised January 31, 2003; Online August 27, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Wisler,  D. C., 1985, “Loss Reduction in Axial-Flow Compressors Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 354–363.
Smith, L. H., Jr., 1958, “The Effect of Tip Clearance on Peak Pressure Rise of Axial-Flow Fans and Compressors,” ASME Symposium on Stall, pp. 149–152.
Koch,  C. C., and Smith,  L. H., 1976, “Loss Sources and Magnitudes in Axial-Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98, pp. 411–424 (July).
Rains, D. A., 1954, “Tip Clearance Flows in Axial Flow Compressors and Pumps,” California Institute of Technology, Hydrodynamics and Mechanical Engineering Laboratories, Report No. 5.
Hunter,  I. H., and Cumpsty,  N. A., 1982, “Casing Wall Boundary-Layer Development Through an Isolated Compressor Rotor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 104, pp. 805–817.
Chen, G. T., Greitzer, E. M., Tan, C. S., and Marble, F. E., “Similarity Analysis of Compressor Tip Clearance Flow Structure,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-153.
Storer, J. A., and Cumpsty, N. A., “An Approximate Analysis and Prediction Method for Tip Clearance Loss in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-140.
Khalid,  S. A., Khalsa,  A. S., Waitz,  I. A., Tan,  C. S., Greitzer,  E. M., Cumpsty,  N. A., Adamczyk,  J. J., and Marble,  F. E., 1999, “Endwall Blockage in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121 , July.
Nikolaou, I. G., Giannakoglou K. C., and Papailiou K. D., “Study of a Radial Tip Clearance Effects in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor Rotor,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-37.
Khalsa, A. S., 1996, “Endwall Blockage in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, June.
Smith, L. H., Jr., 1970, “Casing Boundary Layers in Multistage Axial Flow Compressors,” Flow Research on Blading, L. S. Dzung, ed., Elsevier Publishing Company.
Mikolajczack, A. A., 1977, “The Practical Importance of Unsteady Flow,” AGARD Conf. Proc., AGARD CP-144, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Hetherington, R., and Morritz, R. R., 1977, “The Influence of Unsteady Flow Phenomena on the Design and Operation of Aero Engines,” AGARD Conf. Proc., AGARD CP-144, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Valkov,  T. V., and Tan,  C. S., 1999, “Effect of Upstream Rotor Vortical Disturbances on the Time-Averaged Performance of Axial Compressor Stators: Framework of Technical Approach and Wake-Stator Blade Interactions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121 , July.
Graf, M. B., 1996, “Effects of Stator Pressure Field on Upstream Rotor Performance,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, June.
Tzeng, Y. S., 2000, “The Effect of Rotor-Stator Interaction on Rotor Performance’, GTL Report (unpublished), MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory, Dec.
Bae, J., 2003, “Active Control of Tip Clearance Flow in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT-2003-38661.
Mailach, R., Sauer, H., and Vogeler, K., “The Periodical Interaction of the Tip Clearance Flow in the Blade Rows of Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-299.
Vo, H. D., 2001, “Role of Tip Clearance Flow on Compressor Stability,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Sept.
Denton, J. D., PROGRAM UNSTREST, Version UNSTSS13, June 2000.
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Figures

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Stator wakes description
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Effect of upstream wake on rotor total-to-static pressure rise coefficient showing the benefit of upstream stator wake-rotor tip clearance flow interaction on time-average performance
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Beneficial effect of strong upstream stator wake—rotor tip clearance flow interaction on rotor static pressure rise coefficient
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Beneficial effect of strong upstream stator wake—rotor tip clearance flow interaction on tip region loss generation
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Beneficial effect of strong upstream stator wake—rotor tip clearance flow interaction on tip region blockage generation
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Beneficial effect of upstream unsteadiness increases monotonically with upstream wake defect. (Static pressure rise coefficient is normalized by wake velocity defect to obtain a single linear dependence on operating condition for all wakes.)
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Angle between tip clearance flow exit direction and axial direction in the relative frame
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Chordwise distribution of tip clearance mass flow and stream wise velocity (in direction of main flow relative to blade) for steady and unsteady cases. (Total tip clearance mass flow is 2% of blade passage mass flow.)
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Relative stagnation pressure of tip clearance fluid exiting the tip gap. On a time-average basis unsteady tip clearance flow exits the tip gap with less relative stagnation pressure defect.
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Tip clearance flow behavior in steady and unsteady environment (98% cut); x-axis is in the axial direction and y-axis is in the circumferential direction—(a) steady (tip clearance fluid from blade 1 passes through tip gap of blade 2), (b) instantaneous unsteady (no tip clearance fluid from blade 1 passes through tip gap of blade 2)
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Upstream wakes appear as normal jets directed away from the rotor suction side in the rotor relative frame
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Instantaneous disturbance velocity field in the rotor (50% cut). The upstream wakes impinge on the pressure side and stagnation points appear; x-axis is in the axial direction and y-axis is in the circumferential direction.
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Instantaneous position of pressure pulses in the rotor passage (50% Cut). Pressure pulses appear as a result of the wake jet stagnation on the pressure surface.
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Location of isolated pressure pulse and its turning effect on tip clearance flow (98% span cuts)
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Fluid scenario to explain the reduction of tip clearance fluid double-leakage and enhancement of performance. Pressure pulses prevent double-leakage during selected instants of time in a cycle.
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Relative stagnation pressure defect is shown with dotted lines in the tip gap for different instants of time in a cycle. Average steady and unsteady values are shown with solid lines.
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Compound nozzle flow for two streams Grahic Jump Location
Control volume mixing analysis for prediction of tip clearance loss
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Passage blockage and loss coefficient dependence on stator wake amplitude oscillation frequency (bpf denotes blade passing frequency)

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