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TECHNICAL PAPERS

An Overview of High-Temperature Electronics and Sensor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

[+] Author and Article Information
Gary W. Hunter, Philip G. Neudeck, Robert S. Okojie, Glenn M. Beheim, J. A. Powell

NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, OH 44135

Liangyu Chen

OAI, Cleveland, OH 44142

J. Turbomach 125(4), 658-664 (Dec 01, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1579508 History: Received February 28, 2002; Online December 01, 2003
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References

Neudeck P. G., 1999, The VLSI Handbook, CRC Press LLC, ed., Wai-Kai Chen, Ch. 6.
Neudeck P. G., 2000, “600°C Logic Gates Using Silicon Carbide JFET’s,” Government Microcircuit Applications Conference, March 20–23, Anaheim, CA., pp. 421–424.
Okojie, R. S., Spry, D., Krotine, J., Salupo, C., and Wheeler, D. R., 2000, “Stable Ti/TaSi2/Pt Ohmic Contacts on N-Type 6H-SiC Epilayer at 600°C in Air,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 622, Wide-Bandgap Electronic Devices, R. J. Shul, F. Ren, M. Murakami, and W. Pletschen, eds., Materials Research Society, Warrandale, PA.
Okojie, R. S., Beheim, G. M., Saad, G. J., and Savrun, E., 2001, “Characteristics of a Hermetic 6H-SiC Pressure Sensor at 600°C,” AIAA Pap., 2001–4652.
Beheim, G. M., and Salupo, C. S., 2000, “Deep RIE Process for Silicon Carbide Power Electronics and MEMS,” Wide-Bandgap Electronic Devices, R. J. Shul, F. Ren, M. Murakami, and W. Pletschen, eds., Materials Research Society, Warrandale, PA.
Logothetis,  E. M., 1991, “Automotive Oxygen Sensors,” Chemical Sensor Technology, N. Yamazoe, ed., Kodansha Ltd., 3, pp. 89–104.
Hunter, G. W., Liu, C. C., and Makel, D., 2001, CRC Press LLC, ed., M. Gad-el-Hak, Ch. 22.
Gardner,  J. W., and Bartlett,  P. N., 1994, “A Brief History of Electronic Noses,” Sens. Actuators B, 18(1–3), pp. 211–220.
Hunter, G. W., Neudeck, P. G., Fralick, G., Makel, D., Liu, C. C., Ward, B., Wu, Q. H., Thomas, V., and Hall, G., 2001, “Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Space Health Monitoring Applications,” AIAA Pap., 2001–4689.
Salmon, J. S., Johnson, R. W., and Palmer, M., 1998, “Thick Film Hybrid Packaging Techniques for 500°C Operation,” Trans. Fourth Int. High Temperature Electronics Conference (HiTEC), June 15–19, Albuquerque, NM.
Chen, L.-Y., Okojie, R. S., Neudeck, P. G., and Hunter, G. W., 2001, “Material System for Packaging 500°C MicroSystems,” MRS Proc., Symposium N: Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and MEMS Packaging, San Francisco, CA, April 16–20.
Chen, L.-Y., Hunter, G. W., and Neudeck, P. G., 2000, “Silicon Carbide Die Attach Scheme for 500°C Operation,” MRS 2000 Spring Meeting Proceedings-Wide-Bandgap Electronic Devices (Symposium T), San Francisco, CA, April 10–14.
Lin, S. T., 2001, “Packaging Reliability of High Temperature SiC Devices,” NASA Contract Report.
Powell,  J. A., and Larkin,  D. J., 1997, “Processed-Induced Morphological Defects in Epitaxial CVD Silicon Carbide,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 202, pp. 529–548.
Powell,  J. A., Neudeck,  P. G., Trunek,  A. J., Beheim,  G. M., Matus,  L. G., Hoffman,  R. W. , and Keys,  L. J., 2000, “Growth of Step-Free Surfaces on Device-Size—(0001)-SiC Mesas,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 77, pp. 1449–1451.
Neudeck,  P. G., Powell,  J. A., Trunek,  A. J., Huang,  X. R., and Dudley,  M., 2002, “Growth of Defect-Free 3C-SiC on 4H- and 6H-SiC Mesas Using Step-Free Surface Heteroepitaxy,” to be published in Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, Mater. Sci. Forum, 389–393, pp. 311–314.

Figures

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Simplified (see text) cross-sectional representation of 6H-SiC epitaxial JFETs used to implement 600°C logic gates. The shaded regions are insulating silicon nitride dielectric.
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NAND gate test waveforms at 600°C with VDD=2.5 V,VSS=0 V,Vsubstrate=−1.4 V
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Optical micrograph of 6H-SiC JFET gate following 600°C electrical testing. Each bondpad is 100×100 μm2 , and each of the four gate fingers is 3×150 μm. Degradation of the bondpads is clearly evident.
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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of cavity etched in 6H-SiC by deep reactive ion etching method
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SEM micrograph of top view of a 6H-SiC pressure sensor cell with patterned metallization and four piezoresistors. The circular patterns are ohmic contact test structures.
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(a) Sub-assembled 6H-SiC sensor unit for insertion into the stainless steel screw housing; (b) fully packaged 6H-SiC pressure transducer with pressure port and pins visible
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Net bridge output voltage of 6H-SiC pressure sensor as function of pressure at various temperatures
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The response of a sensor array composed of a tin oxide based sensor (doped for NOx sensitivity), an oxygen sensor, and a SiC-based hydrocarbon sensor in an engine environment
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Prototype high-temperature electronic package composed of ceramic substrates and Au thick-film metallization for harsh environment systems
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Forward resistance of a packaged SiC Schottky diode at 500°C in an oxidizing environment for over 1000 h
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Optical Nomarski images of two adjacent 200 mm square mesas on a 4H-SiC wafer. Mesa A is step-free and mesa B contains a screw dislocation which provided a continuous source of steps during growth.
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(a) Pre-growth optical photo of cross-shaped mesa; (b) post-growth SEM image of “webbing” formed following 60-min growth

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