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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Backward Traveling Rotating Stall Waves in Centrifugal Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. S. Spakovszky

Gas Turbine Laboratory Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Turbomach 126(1), 1-12 (Mar 26, 2004) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1643382 History: Received December 01, 2001; Revised March 01, 2002; Online March 26, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Hunziker,  R., and Gyarmathy,  G., 1994, “The Operational Stability of a Centrifugal Compressor and Its Dependence on the Characteristics of the Subcomponents,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116, pp. 250–259.
Lawless,  P., and Fleeter,  S., 1995, “Rotating Stall Acoustic Signature in a Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor: Part I—Vaneless Diffuser,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 87–96.
Abdelhamid, A., 1980, “Analysis of Rotating Stall in Vaneless Diffusers of Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper 80-GT-184.
Frigne, P., and Van Den Braembussche, R., 1980, “A Theoretical Model for Rotating Stall in the Vaneless Diffuser of a Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper 84-GT-204.
Frigne,  P., and Van Den Braembussche,  R., 1984, “Distinction Between Different Types of Impeller and Diffuser Rotating Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor With Vaneless Diffuser,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 106, pp. 468–474.
Lawless, P., and Fleeter, S., 1991, “Active Unsteady Aerodynamic Suppression of Rotating Stall in an Incompressible Flow Centrifugal Compressor With Vaned Diffuser,” Paper No. AIAA-91-1898.
Lawless, P., and Fleeter, S., 1993, “Rotating Stall Acoustic Signature in a Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor: Part II—Vaned Diffuser,” ASME Paper 93-GT-254.
Oakes, W., Lawless, P., and Fleeter, S., 1999, “Instability Pathology of a High Speed Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper 99-GT-415.
Pinsley,  J., Guenette,  G., Epstein,  A., and Greitzer,  E., 1991, “Active Stabilization of Centrifugal Compressor Surge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 723–732.
Gysling,  D., Dugundji,  J., Greitzer,  E., and Epstein,  A., 1991, “Dynamic Control of Centrifugal Compressor Surge Using Tailored Structures,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 710–722.
Ffowcs Williams,  J., Harper,  M., and Allwright,  D. J., 1993, “Active Stabilization of Compressor Instability and Surge in a Working Engine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 68–75.
Nelson,  E., Paduano,  J., and Epstein,  A., 2000, “Active Stabilization of Surge in an Axicentrifugal Turboshaft Engine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 485–493.
Stein, A., Niazi, S., and Sankar, L., 2000, “Computational Analysis of Centrifugal Compressor Surge Control Using Air Injection,” AIAA Paper No. 2000-3501.
McKain, T., and Holbrook, G., 1997, “Coordinates for a High Performance 4:1 Presure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor,” NASA, Technical Report CR-204134.
Moore,  F., and Greitzer,  E., 1986, “A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compressors: Part I—Development of the Equations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108, pp. 68–76.
Longley,  J., 1994, “A Review of Nonsteady Flow Models for Compressor Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 202–215.
Spakovszky, Z., 2000, “Applications of Axial and Radial Compressor Dynamic System Modeling,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Wood, J., 2000, personal communication, NASA Glenn Research Center.
Rodgers, C., 1982, “The Performance of Centrifugal Compressor Channel Diffusers,” ASME Paper 82-GT-10.
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Greitzer,  E., 1976, “Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Compressors; Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98, pp. 190–198.
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Figures

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Cross section and front view of NASA CC3 centrifugal compressor
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Implementation of modular, low-order dynamic system model for NASA CC3 centrifugal compressor
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1st through 6th harmonic system resonances of NASA CC3 centrifugal compressor for an operating point close to stall
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Energy function 1st through 4th harmonic resonances marked as diamonds in Fig. 3
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Motion of system modes when compressor is throttled into stall
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Motion of third harmonic (n=3) resonances of interacting rotor-stator system for variable interblade row spacing Δx=0[[ellipsis]]1
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Wave system for interacting rotor and stator blade-rows
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Unsteady pressure traces in the vaneless space during a stall ramp at 80% corrected design speed
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Unsteady pressure traces in the vaneless space during a stall ramp at 100% corrected design speed
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Pressure traces at impeller inlet, in the vaneless space, at the diffuser throat and in the diffuser passage along the path into instability at 80% corrected design speed
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“Classic Surge”: pressure traces in the vaneless space at 80% corrected design speed
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Velocity triangles at the impeller exit near the diffuser shroud (solid) and near the diffuser hub (dash). The air jet from the tangential injector nozzle is sketched as the dotted line. The vaneless space is not to scale.
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Speed lines at 80% and 100% corrected design speed: baseline (circles) and with flow control (pluses)
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Pressure traces in the vaneless space during a stall ramp with air injection at 100% corrected design speed
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Impeller total-to-static pressure ratio (left) and diffuser subcomponent pressure rise at the hub (center) and at the shroud (right) for no injection (white symbols) and injected mass flow of 0.7% (gray symbols) and 1.6% of compressor design mass flow (black symbols) at 100% corrected design speed
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Effect of impeller exit tip-clearance on surgemargin and on stability enhancement at 80% and at 100% corrected design speed
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Stability enhancement at 80% and at 100% corrected design speed with different numbers of injectors

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