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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Impact of Forward Swept Rotors on Tip Clearance Flows in Subsonic Axial Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
G. Scott McNulty, John J. Decker, Brent F. Beacher

GE Aircraft Engines, One Neumann Way, MD A411, Cincinnati, OH 45215

S. Arif Khalid

Streamline, Inc., Indianapolis, IN

J. Turbomach 126(4), 445-454 (Dec 29, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1773852 History: Received December 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online December 29, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Wadia,  A. R., Szucs,  P. N., and Crall,  D. W., 1998, “Inner Workings of Aerodynamic Sweep,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 671–682.
Wadia, A. R., Szucs, P. N., Crall, D. W., and Rabe, D. C., 2002, “Forward Swept Rotor Studies in Multistage Fans With Inlet Distortion,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30326.
Yamaguchi, N., Tominaga, T., Hattori, S., and Mitsuhashi, T., 1991, “Secondary-Loss Reduction by Forward-Skewing of Axial Compressor Rotor Blading,” presented at Yokohama International Gas Turbine Conference.
Inoue, M., Kuroumaru, M., Furukawa, M., Kinoue, Y., Tanino, T., Maeda, S., and Okuno, K., 1997, “Controlled-Endwall-Flow Blading for Multistage Axial Compressor Rotor,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-248.
Gallimore,  S. J., Bolger,  J. J., Cumpsty,  N. A., Taylor,  M. J., Wright,  P. I., and Place,  J. M. M., 2002, “The Use of Sweep and Dihedral in Multistage Axial Flow Compressor Blading—Part I: University Research and Methods Development,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 521–532.
Gallimore,  S. J., Bolger,  J. J., Cumpsty,  N. A., Taylor,  M. J., Wright,  P. I., and Place,  J. M. M., 2002, “The Use of Sweep and Dihedral in Multistage Axial Flow Compressor Blading—Part II: Low and High-Speed Designs and Test Verification,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 533–541.
Holmes, D. G., Mitchell, B. E., and Lorence, C. B., 1997, “Three-Dimensional Linearized Navier-Stokes Calculations for Flutter and Forced Response,” Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachinery (ISUAAT), Stockholm, Sweden.
Smith,  L. H., and Yeh,  H., 1963, “Sweep and Dihedral Effects in Axial Flow Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 85, pp. 401–416.
Wisler,  D. C., 1985, “Loss Reduction in Axial Flow Compressors Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 354–363.
Wisler, D. C., Halstead, D. E., and Beacher, B. F., 1999, “Improving Compressor and Turbine Performance Through Cost Effective Low-Speed Testing,” ISABE99-7073, 14th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Sept., Florence, Italy.
Koch,  C. C., 1981, “The Stall Pressure-Rise Capability of Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 103, pp. 645–656.
Koch,  C. C., and Smith,  L. H., 1976, “Loss Sources and Magnitudes in Axial-Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 98(3), pp. 411–424.
Sirakov, B. T., and Tan, C. S., 2002, “Effect of Upstream Unsteady Flow on Rotor Tip Leakage Flow,” ASME Paper No. 02-GT-358.
Khalid,  S. A., Khalsa,  A. S., Waitz,  I. A., Tan,  C. S., Greitzer,  E. M., Cumpsty,  N. A., Adamcyzk,  J. J., and Marble,  F. E., 1999, “Endwall Blockage in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 499–509.
Khalid, S. A., 1995, “The Effects of Tip Clearance on Axial Compressor Pressure Rise,” Internal Gas Turbine Lab Report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Khalsa, A. S., 1994, personal communication, reduced data taken at the Whittle Laboratory, Cambridge University.
Adamczyk,  J. J., Celestina,  M. L., and Greitzer,  E. M., 1993, “The Role of Tip Clearance in High-Speed Fan Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 28–39.

Figures

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Comparison of aerodynamic sweep distributions
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Configuration 1 radial and forward swept rotors
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Comparison of design point static pressure coefficient distributions
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Characteristics data for configuration 1 at nominal and open clearance levels: (a) static pressure coefficient and (b) torque efficiency
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Configuration 1 forward swept rotor surface static pressure data at various throttle settings at nominal clearance
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Characteristics data for configuration 2 at nominal and open clearance levels: (a) static pressure coefficient and (b) torque efficiency
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Measured rotor tip-clearance sensitivities: (a) maximum tip static pressure coefficient, (b) throttle margin, and (c) peak efficiency
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Comparison of forward swept and radial rotor surface static pressure data for configuration 1 at open clearances
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Comparison of surface static pressure data at nominal and open clearances for the forward swept rotor of configuration 1
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Comparison of surface static pressure data to CFD analysis for configuration 1 forward swept rotor at throttle 16 with nominal clearance
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Comparison of flow measurements to CFD analysis for configuration 1 swept rotor at throttle 16 with nominal clearance: (a) inlet relative flow angle, (b) exit relative flow angle, (c) inlet axial velocity, (d) exit axial velocity, (e) exit absolute total pressure. (Radial rotor CFD shown for reference.)
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Comparison of rotor trailing-edge contours for configuration 1 CFD analyses at throttle 16 with nominal clearance: (a) axial velocity (ft/s), (b) loss coefficient.
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Comparison of blade-to-blade axial velocity contours at mid-clearance gap for configuration 1 CFD analyses at throttle 16 with nominal clearance
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Comparison of blade-to-blade relative velocity contours at blade tip for configuration 1 CFD analyses at throttle 16 with nominal clearance
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Comparison of nondimensional tip-leakage flow blockage versus tip loading parameter using the method of Khalid 1516

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