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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a High-Bypass Ratio Fan Stage

[+] Author and Article Information
Anil Prasad, Dilip Prasad

Aerodynamics Division, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Turbomach 127(1), 64-75 (Feb 09, 2005) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1811103 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

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Smith, M. J. T., 1989, Aircraft Noise, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
Morin, B. L., 1999, “Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Gas Turbine Engines,” AIAA Paper No. 99-1889.
Verdon, J. M., Montgomery, M. D., and Chuang, H. A., “Development of a Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis With Application to Wake/Blade-Row Interactions,” NASA CR-1999-208879.
Ni,  R.-H., 1982, “A Multiple-Grid Scheme for Solving Euler Equations,” AIAA J., 20, pp. 1565–1571.
Davis, R. L., Ni, R.-H., and Carter, J. E., 1986 “Cascade Viscous Flow Analysis Using the Navier-Stokes Equations,” AIAA Paper No. 86-0033.
Wilcox, D. C., 1998, Turbulence Modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, La Cañada, CA.
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Ni, R.-H., and Bogoian, H., 1989 “Predictions of 3-D Multi-Stage Turbine Flow Fields Using a Multiple-Grid Euler Solver,” AIAA Paper No. 89-0233.
Ni, R.-H., and Sharma, O. P., 1990 “Using a 3-D Euler Flow Simulation to Assess Effects of Periodic Unsteady Flows,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2357.
Davis, R. L., Shang, T., Buteau, J., and Ni, R.-H., 1996, “Prediction of 3-D Unsteady Flow in Multi-Stage Turbomachinery Using an Implicit Dual Time-Step Approach,” AIAA Paper No. 96-2565.
Prasad,  A., 2003, “Evolution of Upstream Propagating Shock Waves from a Transonic Compressor Rotor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133, pp. 133–140.
International Civil Aviation Organization, “Environmental Protection, Aircraft Noise,” Annex 16, Vol. 1.
Calvert,  W. J., and Ginder,  R. C., 1999, “Transonic Fan and Compressor Design,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 213(C5), pp. 419–436.
Kantrowitz, A., 1950, “The Supersonic Axial-flow Compressor,” NACA Report 974.
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Morfey,  C. L., and Fisher,  M. J., 1970, “Shock-wave Radiation from a Supersonic Ducted Rotor,” J. R. Aeronaut. Soc., 74, pp. 579–585.
Morfey,  C. L., 1971, “Acoustic Energy in Non-uniform Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 74, pp. 159–170.
Prasad, D., and Feng, J., 2003 “Propagation and Decay of Shock Waves in Turbofan Inlets,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127 , pp. 117–126.
Pickett,  G. F., 1972, “Prediction of the Spectral Content of Combination Tone Noise,” J. Aircr., 9, pp. 658–663.
Hanson, D. B., 1999, “Influence of Lean and Sweep on Noise of Cascades With Turbulent Inflow,” AIAA/CEAS Paper No. 99-1863.
Khalid,  S. A., Khalsa,  A. S., Waitz,  I. A., Tan,  C. S., Greitzer,  E. M., Cumpsty,  N. A., Adamczyk,  J. J., and Marble,  F. E., 1999, “Endwall Blockage in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121, pp. 499–509.
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Figures

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Normalized turbulent kinetic energy τ associated with the rotor wakes entering the IGV. The IGV leading edges are indicated. The view shown is from downstream and rotor motion is counterclockwise.
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Real part of the rotor-frame unsteady pressure field at the vane passing frequency on (a) a meridional midrotor passage plane and (b) radial plane located at the IGV midspan
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Radial profiles of (a) relative Mach number and (b) relative swirl angle at x=2.5. The splitter location is indicated by the broken line.
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Isentropic Mach number on the FEGV at three spanwise locations obtained from the coupled time-averaged simulation (symbols) and the isolated calculation (lines)
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Isentropic Mach number distribution on the IGV at midspan: the time-averaged coupled calculation result (○) is compared with that of the isolated rotor simulation (—).
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Unsteady pressure distribution on the IGV. The real part (upper panel) and imaginary part (lower panel) are shown on the pressure (left) and suction (right) surfaces.
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Comparison of the locus of maximum rotor wake velocity deficit from the coupled (□) and isolated rotor (—) simulations at x=2.75
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Radial profiles at x=2.7 of the (a) magnitude and (b) phase of the normalized gust excitation components at BPF
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Unsteady static pressure perturbation on the FEGV at BPF. The real part (upper panel) and imaginary part (lower panel) are shown on the pressure (left) and suction (right) surfaces.
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Real part of unsteady pressure at BPF on a midspan plane through the FEGV
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(a) Magnitude of unsteady pressure at BPF and (b) radial profile of absolute Mach number on a plane downstream of the FEGV
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Meridional view of the flow configuration for coupled simulations of the fan system. The broken lines indicate the locations of the sliding interface planes.
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Comparison of rotor isentropic Mach number distributions at various spanwise locations for a high-power engine setting. Lines: isolated calculation; symbols: coupled calculation (for clarity, only every other point is shown).
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Variation with fan face tip relative Mach number Mf of (a) computed acoustic power level at 1.25 (□) and 2.05 (▵) tip chords upstream of fan tip leading edge, and (b) shock strength Z, and supersonic span fraction σ. The approximate prediction of acoustic power using a one-dimensional analysis is shown in (c).
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Position of the rotor leading-edge shock for several values of fan face tip relative Mach number Mf
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Variation of measured inlet shock noise power level with fan face tip relative Mach number Mf
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Radial profiles at x=2.7 of (a) normalized turbulent kinetic energy and (b) normalized turbulent length scale at the approach (AP), flyover (FY), sideline (SL), and maximum power (MP) conditions
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Streamline patterns near the blade suction surface at the (a) flyover, (b) sideline, and (c) maximum power acoustic conditions. (d) Isentropic Mach number distributions at 80% span for the flyover (- - -), sideline (—) and maximum power (-⋅-⋅-) conditions.
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Flow features associated with the rotor at the approach condition: (a) Streamline pattern near blade suction surface and (b) contours of normalized turbulent kinetic energy at x=2.5
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Average normalized turbulent kinetic energy at x=2.7 as function of fan face tip relative Mach number Mf. The approach (AP), flyover (FY), sideline (SL), and maximum power (MP) conditions are indicated.

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