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TECHNICAL PAPERS

On the Use of Five-Hole Probes in the Testing of Industrial Centrifugal Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
José L. Gilarranz, Andrew J. Ranz, Jason A. Kopko, James M. Sorokes

Dresser-Rand Company, Paul Clark Drive, Olean, New York 14760

J. Turbomach 127(1), 91-106 (Feb 09, 2005) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1812319 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Sorokes,  J. M., and Koch,  J. M., 1996, “The Use of Single and Multi-Stage Test Vehicles in the Development of the Dresser-Rand DATUM Compressor,” Dresser-Rand Technol. J.,2, pp. 133–147.
Sorokes, J. M., and Welch, J. P., 1991, “Centrifugal Compressor Performance Enhancement Through the Use of Single-Stage Development Rig,” Proceedings of the 20th Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M, pp. 101–112.
Sorokes, J. M., and Welch, J. P., 1992, “Experimental Results on a Rotatable Low Solidity Vaned Diffuser,” ASME paper no. 92-GT-19.
Benvenuti, E., 1978, “Aerodynamic Development of Stages for Industrial Centrifugal Compressors. Part 1: Testing Requirements and Equipment—Immediate Experimental Evidence,” ASME paper no. 78-GT-4.
Kotliar, M., Engstrom, R., and Giachi, M., 1999, “The Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Scale Model Component Testing for a Large FCC Prototype Air Compressor,” Proceedings of the 28th Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M, pp. 69–76.
Borer, C., Sorokes, J. M., McMahon, T., and Abraham, E., 1997, “An Assessment of the Forces Acting Upon a Centrifugal Impeller Using Full Load, Full Pressure Hydrocarbon Testing,” Proceedings of the 26th Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M, pp. 111–121.
ASME, 1997, “PTC 10, Performance Test Code on Compressors and Exhausters,” ASME Press.
Dieter, W., 2002, “An Optimized Pneumatic Probe for Investigation of Gas Turbine Aerodynamics in Full Scale Gas Turbines,” ASME paper no. GT-2002-30044.
Smout,  P. D., and Ivey,  P. C., 1997, “Investigation of Wedge Probe Wall Proximity Effects: Part 1—Experimental Study,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 119, pp. 598–604.
Roduner, C., Köppel, Kupferschmied, P., and Gyarmathy, G., 1998, “Comparison of Measurement Data at the Impeller Exit of a Centrifugal Compressor Measured With Both Pneumatic and Fast-Response Probes,” ASME paper no. 98-GT-241.
Johansen,  E. S., Rediniotis,  O. K., and Jones,  G., 2001, “The Compressible Calibration of Miniature Multi-Hole Probes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123, pp. 128–138.
Johansen, E. S., 2001, “Development of a Fast-Response Multi-Hole Probe for Unsteady and Turbulent Flowfields,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Dominy,  R. G., and Hodson,  H. P., 1993, “An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Calibration of Five-Hole Probes for Three-Dimensional Flow Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115, pp. 513–519.
Zeiger, M. D., Chalmeta, L. P., and Telionis, D. P., 1998, “Tip Geometry Effects on Calibration and Performance of Seven Hole Probes,” AIAA paper no. AIAA-98-2810.
Lee, S. W., and Jun, S. B., 2003, “Effects of Reynolds Number on the Non-Nulling Calibration of a Cone-Type Five-Hole Probe,” ASME paper no. GT-2003-38147.
Johansen, E. S., 1998, “Steady and Unsteady Calibration of Multi-Hole Probes,” M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Brand, L., 1957, Vector Analysis, Wiley, New York, pp. 17–19.
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Figures

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Cross-section of a multi-stage test vehicle showing typical locations for instrumentation placement 1
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L-shaped 5-hole probe with a conical tip
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Probe coordinate system and angle conventions
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Internal instrumentation layout
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Combination total pressure/total temperature probe. Probe tip detail (top), probe located at exit of IGV (bottom).
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Location of 5-hole probes
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Overview of 5-hole probe location
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Location of hub side probes
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Location of shroud side probes
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Connection of 5-hole probes to pressure blocks
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Model of 5-hole probe installed in the shroud side of the compressor return bend
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View of probe showing the two coordinate systems that are used (PACS in red and MACS in blue)
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Definition of direction cosines for projection of the x-axis from the PACS into the machine axis coordinate system (MACS)
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Machine axis coordinate system definition
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Compressor polytropic head versus volumetric flow. Predicted (red-dashed) versus tested (blue-solid).
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Impeller exit velocity triangle
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(a) Alignment of impeller exit flow and LSD, (b) definition of flow angle deviation
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Flow angle at diffuser entrance (3 values U2/Ao)—hub side
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Flow angle at diffuser entrance (3 values U2/Ao)—shroud side
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Flow angle at return bend (design U2/Ao)—hub versus shroud
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Flow angle at diffuser entrance (design U2/Ao)—hub versus shroud
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Predicted impeller exit velocity
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Predicted impeller flow exit angle. Overall view (left) and detailed view of one flow passage (right) showing the location of the 5-hole probe measurements (dashed lines).
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Flow angle at diffuser entrance (design U2/Ao). Comparison of test data and CFD predictions at the design flow rate.
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Compressor polytropic head versus volumetric flow. Comparison between the performance of the original (red-dashed) and improved (blue-solid) prototype configurations.
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Flow angle at diffuser entrance (design U2/Ao)—hub versus shroud. Comparison between original (vaneless) and improved (rib) diffuser configurations.

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