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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Measured Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer for Blowing From the Tip of a Turbine Blade

[+] Author and Article Information
J. R. Christophel, E. Couch, K. A. Thole

Mechanical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061

F. J. Cunha

Turbine Durability, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company, United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Turbomach 127(2), 251-262 (May 05, 2005) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1811095 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online May 05, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Lattime, S. B., and Steinetz, B. M., 2002, “Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions,” NASA TM 2002-211794.
Morphis, G., and Bindon, J. P., 1988, “The Effects of Relative Motioin, Blade Edge Radius and Gap Size on the Blade Tip Pressure Distribution in an Annular Turbine Cascade With Clearance,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-256.
Tallman,  J., and Lakshmiarayana,  B., 2001, “Numerical Simulation of Tip Leakage Flows in Axial Flow Turbines, With Emphasis on Flow Physics: Part II—Effect of Outer Casing Relative Motion,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 324–333.
Yaras,  M. I., and Sjölander,  S. A., 1992, “Effects of Simulated Rotation on Tip Leakage in a Planar Cascade of Turbine Blades: Part I Tip Gap Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 652–659.
Mayle, R. E., and Metzger, D. E., 1982, “Heat Transfer at the Tip of an Unshrouded Turbine Blade,” Proc. of 7th Int. Heat Transfer Conf., Vol. 3, ASME, New York, pp. 87–92.
Chyu,  M. K., Moon,  H. H., and Metzger,  D. E., 1989, “Heat Transfer in the Tip Region of Grooved Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 131–138.
Srinivasan,  V., and Goldstein,  R. J., 2003, “Effect of Endwall Motion on Blade Tip Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 125, pp. 267–273.
Kim,  Y. W., and Metzger,  D. E., 1995, “Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 12–21.
Kim,  Y. W., Downs,  J. P., Soechting,  F. O., Abdel-Messeh,  W., Steuber,  G., and Tanrikut,  S., 1995, “A Summary of the Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Heat Transfer and Film Effectiveness Investigations Performed by Dr. D. E. Metzger,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 1–11.
Kwak, J. S., and Han, J. C., 2002, “Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film-Cooling Effectiveness on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30194.
Kwak, J. S., and Han, J. C., 2002, “Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film-Cooling Effectiveness on a Squealer Tip of a Gas Turbine Blade Tip,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30555.
Acharya, S., Yang, H., Ekkad, S. V., Prakash, C., and Bunker, R., 2002, “Numerical Simulation of Film Cooling Holes On the Tip of a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30553.
Hohlfeld, E. M., Christophel, J. R., Couch, E. L., and Thole, K. A., 2003, “Predictions of Cooling From Dirt Purge Holes Along the Tip of a Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38251.
Bunker,  R. S., Bailey,  J. C., and Ameri,  A. A., 2000, “Heat Transfer and Flow on the First-Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine: Part 1—Experimental Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 263–271.
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Hohlfeld, E. H., 2003, “Film Cooling Predictions Along the Tip and Platform of a Turbine Blade,” Master’s thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
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Figures

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Schematic of the wind tunnel facility used for the testing of the blade tips
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The corner test section of the wind tunnel housed three blades that formed two full passages
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The blade tip included a plenum that supplied coolant to the dirt purge holes
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Main tip heat transfer surface showing (a) serpentine passages and (b) detail of main tip heater as placed on the blade surface
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Measured and predicted static pressures at the blade midspan
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Adiabatic effectiveness contours taken along the tip with dirt purge blowing for the small tip gap
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Adiabatic effectiveness contours taken along the tip with dirt purge blowing for the large tip gap
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Definition of the blade camber line
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Effectiveness taken along the blade camber line for the (a) small and (b) large tip gaps
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Area-averaged effectiveness of the tip at various coolant blowing levels
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Comparison of experimental data to a fully developed correlation
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Baseline Nusselt number contour plots for the (a) small and (b) large tip gap heights
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Camber line data for hf/h0 for the (a) small and (b) large tip gaps
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CFD predictions of dirt purge streamlines for the large tip gap 21
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Area-averaged heat transfer augmentation for the small and large tip gaps
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Contour plots of NHFR for the small (top) and large (bottom) gap heights at all blowing ratios
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NHFR taken along the Camber line for the (a) small and (b) large gap heights
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Area-averaged NHFR for both gap heights

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