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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Cooling the Tip of a Turbine Blade Using Pressure Side Holes—Part II: Heat Transfer Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
J. R. Christophel, K. A. Thole

Mechanical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061

F. J. Cunha

Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Turbomach 127(2), 278-286 (May 05, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1811096 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004; Online May 05, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Kwak, J. S., and Han, J. C., 2002, “Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Squealer Tip and Near Squealer Tip Regions of a Gas Turbine Blade,” ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Congress and Exposition, ASME Paper No. IMECE 2002-32109.
Christophel,  J., Thole,  K. A., and Cunha,  F., 2005, “Cooling the Tip of a Turbine Blade Using Pressure Side Holes-Part I: Adiabatic Effectiveness Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomachinery, 127, pp. 270–277.
Mayle, R. E., and Metzger, D. E., 1982, “Heat Transfer at the Tip of an Unshrouded Turbine Blade,” Proc. 7th Int. Heat Transfer Conference3 , ASME, New York, pp. 87–92.
Morphis, G., and Bindon, J. P., 1988, “Effect of Relative Motion, Blade Edge Radius and Gap Size on the Blade Tip Pressure Distribution in an Annular Turbine Cascade With Clearance,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-256.
Bindon,  J. P., 1989, “The Measurement and Formation of Tip Clearance Loss,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 257–263.
Bunker, R. S., 2000, “A Review of Turbine Blade Tip Heat Transfer,” Turbine 2000 Symposium on Heat Transfer in Gas Turbine Systems, Cesme, Turkey.
Bunker,  R. S., Bailey,  J. C., and Ameri,  A. A., 2000, “Heat Transfer and Flow on the First-Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine: Part 1—Experimental Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 263–271.
Jin,  P., and Goldstein,  R. J., 2003, “Local Mass/Heat Transfer on a Turbine Blade Tip,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 9(2), pp. 981–995.
Azad,  G. S., Han,  J. C., and Boyle,  R. J., 2000, “Heat Transfer and Presure Distributions on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 717–724.
Teng,  S., Han,  J. C., and Azad,  G., 2001, “Detailed Heat Transfer Coefficient Distributions on a Large-Scale Gas Turbine Blade Tip,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123, pp. 803–809.
Kwak, J. S., and Han, J. C., 2002, “Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film-Cooling Effectiveness on a Gas Turbine Blade Tip,” ASME Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Paper No. GT2002-30194.
Saxena, V., Nasir, H., and Ekkad, S. V., 2003, “Effect of Blade Tip Geometry on Tip Flow and Heat Transfer For a Blade in a Low Speed Cascade,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38176.
Ameri, A. A., 2001, “Heat Transfer and Flow on the Blade Tip of a Gas Turbine Equipped With a Mean-Camberline Strip,” ASME Paper No. GT2001-0156.
Kim,  Y. W., and Metzger,  D. E., 1995, “Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 12–21.
Kim,  Y. W., Downs,  J. P., Soechting,  F. O., Abdel-Messeh,  W., Steuber,  G., and Tanrikut,  S., 1995, “A Summary of the Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Heat Transfer and Film Effectiveness Investigations Performed by Dr. D. E. Metzger,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 1–11.
Hohlfeld, E. M., Christophel, J. R., Couch, E. L., and Thole, K. A., 2003, “Predictions of Cooling From Dirt Purge Holes Along the Tip of a Turbine Blade,” ASME Turbo Expo, Atlanta, Georgia. Paper No. GT2003-38251.
Moffat,  R. J., 1988, “Describing the Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1, pp. 3–17.
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Sen,  B., Schmidt,  D. L., and Bogard,  D. G., 1996, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 800–806.

Figures

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Test section viewed from top showing adjustment capabilities and infrared windows
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Tip geometries tested: (a) the baseline geometry (filled-in dirt purge holes) and (b),(c) approximate hole geometry with the dirt purge holes
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Main tip heat transfer surface showing (a) serpentine passages and (b) detail of main tip heater as placed on the blade surface
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Comparison of experimental data to a fully developed correlation
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Comparison of experimental data to the proposed augmentation factor
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Baseline Nusselt number contour plots for the (a) small and (b) large tip gap
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Nusselt number line plots for the baseline
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Line plots at lines 0 and 3 for baseline cases
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(a)–(c) Line plots for the cooling holes at positions 1, 2, and 3
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Heat transfer augmentation at the camber line for the (a) small and (b) large tip gaps
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Area-averaged heat transfer augmentation for the entire blade tip
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Pressure side plots of NHFR for the small tip gap
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NHFR for all cases at 0.58% and 1% coolant flow
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(a)–(c) Individual line plots of NHFR at different locations along the blade tip
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NHFR levels for camber lines for (a) small and (b) large tip gap settings
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Area-averaged NHFR for full blade tip and for the downstream 70% of tip

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