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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Active Control of Tip Clearance Flow in Axial Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Jin Woo Bae, Choon S. Tan

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Kenneth S. Breuer

Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI

J. Turbomach 127(2), 352-362 (May 05, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1776584 History: Received December 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online May 05, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Wisler,  D. C., 1985, “Loss Reduction in Axial-Flow Compressors Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 107, pp. 354–363.
Smith, L. H., Jr., 1958, “The Effect of Tip Clearance on the Peak Pressure Rise of Axial-flow Fans and Compressors,” ASME Symposium on Stall, ASME, New York, pp. 149–152.
Cumpsty, N. A., 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Group, London, 345.
Storer, J. A., 1991, “Tip Clearance Flow in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Jan.
Storer, J. A., and Cumpsty, N. A., 1990, “Tip Leakage Flow in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-127.
Heyes,  F. J. G., Hodson,  H. P., and Dailey,  G. M., 1992, “The Effect of Blade Tip Geometry on the Tip Leakage Flow in Axial Turbine Cascades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 643–651.
Bindon,  J. P., 1989, “The Measurement and Formation of Tip Clearance Loss,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 257–263.
Saathoff,  H., and Stark,  U., 2000, “Endwall Boundary Layer Separation in a High-Stagger Compressor Cascade and a Single-Stage Axial-Flow Low-Speed Compressor,” Forschung im Ingenieurwesen, 65(8), pp. 217–216.
Khalid, S. A., 1995, “The Effect of Tip Clearance on Axial Compressor Pressure Rise,” Ph.D. thesis, Gas Turbine Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, Feb.
Drela, M., and Youngren, H., 1995, A User’s Guide to MISES 2.1, MIT Computational Aerospace Science Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Kline,  S. J., and McClintock,  F. A., 1953, “Describing Uncertainties in Single-Sample Experiments,” CME, Chart. Mech. Eng., Jan. , pp. 3–8.
Amitay, M., Honohan, A., Trautmann, M., and Glezer, A., 1997, “Modification of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Bluff Bodies Using Fluidic Actuators,” Paper No. AIAA 97-2004.
Smith, D. R., Amitay, M., Kibens, V., Parekh, D., and Glezer, A., 1998, “Modification of Lifting Body Aerodynamics Using Synthetic Jet Actuators,” Paper No. AIAA 98-0209.
Khalid, S. A., Khalsa, A. S., Waitz, I. A., Tan, C. S., Greitzer, E. M., Cumpsty, N. A., Adamczyk, J. J., and Marble, F. E., 1998, “Endwall Blockage in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-188.
Bae, J., 2001, “Active Control of Tip Clearance Flow in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, June.
Katz,  Y., Horev,  E., and Wygnanski,  I., 1992, “The Forced Turbulent Wall Jet,” J. Fluid Mech., 242, pp. 577–609.
Tsuji,  Y., Morikawa,  Y., Nagatani,  T., and Sakou,  M., 1977, “The Stability of a Two-Dimensional Wall Jet,” Aeronaut. Q., XXVIII (Nov.), pp. 235–246.
Crow, S. C., 1970, “Stability Theory for a Pair of Trailing Vortices,” AIAA Paper No. 70-53.
Kang, E., Breuer, K. S., and Tan, C. S., 2000, “Control of Leakage Flows Using Periodic Excitations,” Paper No. AIAA 2000-2232.
Storer, J. A., and Cumpsty, N. A., 1993, “An Approximate Analysis and Prediction Method for Tip Clearance Loss in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-140.
Bae, J., Breuer, K. S., and Tan, C. S., 2000, “Control of Tip Clearance Flows in Axial Compressors,” AIAA Paper No. 2000-2233.
McCormick, D. C., 2000, “Boundary Layer Separation Control With Directed Synthetic Jets,” Paper No. AIAA 2000-0519.

Figures

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Illustration of tip leakage flow rate reduction scheme
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Illustration of mixing enhancement scheme
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Illustration of streamwise momentum injection scheme
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Schematic of cascade wind tunnel test section
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Endwall blockage measured 5%C downstream of trailing edge plane versus tip clearance size. No actuation is applied.
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Schematic of the synthetic jet actuator used in the cascade rig. Configuration of the normal synthetic jet (NSJ) actuator with slit
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Schematic of the DSJ actuator mounted on the casing wall
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Schematic of the directed synthetic jet (DSJ) actuator mounted on the casing wall showing the direction of the jet
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Contours of ω measured 5%C downstream of trailing edge plane: (a) baseline without actuation, τ=3%C; (b) NSJ directly over blade tip (at 0% pitch), Cμ,τ=0.88,FC+=1.0; (c) NSJ over vortex core (at 25% pitch), Cμ,τ=0.88,FC+=1.0. Arrows indicate pitchwise locations of NSJ slits.
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Tip clearance-related blockage versus NSJ actuator amplitude. Actuator near the vortex core. FC+=1.0.
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Endwall blockage versus Cμ,τ with NSJ directly over blade tip. Data sets taken for two upstream velocities. τ=3%C,FC+=1.0.
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Frequency dependence of blockage reduction with NSJ actuator over the vortex core: (a) using clearance size τ ; (b) using blade chord C as length scale
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Endwall blockage versus pitchwise location of the NSJ actuator. τ/C=3%,Cμ,τ=0.88, and FC+=1.0.
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Endwall total pressure loss coefficient versus pitchwise location of NSJ actuator. τ/C=3%,Cμ,τ=0.88 and FC+=1.0: (a) mass-averaged ω; (b) stream thrust-averaged (or fully mixed-out) ω.
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Contours of ω measured 5%C downstream of trailing edge plane: (a) baseline without actuation, τ=3%C; (b) DSJ directly over blade PS (y=−0.04 pitch), Cμ,τ=0.88,FC+=1.0. Arrows indicate locations of DSJ holes.
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Comparison between DSJ (placed near the pressure surface of the blade) and NSJ (placed near the vortex core). τ=3%C. Both actuators at FC+=1.0.
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Endwall blockage versus pitchwise location of DSJ actuator. τ=3%C.
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Endwall total pressure loss coefficient versus pitchwise location of the DSJ actuator (τ=3%C): (a) mass-averaged ω; (b) stream thrust-averaged (or fully mixed-out) ω.
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Comparison between the DSJ and the SDJ (steady directed jet). Holes of both actuators are placed over the pressure surface of the blade. τ=3%C. DSJ at FC+=1.0.
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Ratio of endwall loss reduction to expended flow power of directed jet actuation at C̄μ,τ=0.25.
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Estimated recovery rate of expended flow power: (a) as function of relative angle between the jet and main flow; (b) as function of the velocity ratio for a fixed momentum injection

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