The paper deals with the development of a nonlinear one-dimensional modular dynamic model for the simulation of transient behavior of compression systems. The model is based on balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy, which are derived through a general approach and are written by using the finite difference method. The model also takes rotating mass dynamics into account through a lumped parameter approach. Moreover, it reproduces the behavior of the system in the presence of the surge phenomenon through steady-state performance maps, which represent the compressor operation in the inverse flow region by means of a third degree polynomial curve. The model is implemented through the Matlab Simulink tool, where the system of ordinary differential equations is solved by using a fourth- and fifth-order Runge–Kutta method. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence on compressor outlet pressure oscillations of the model parameters, of the supplied torque, of ambient conditions and of the shape of the compressor characteristic curves. The results show that the model proves effective in capturing the physical essence of surge phenomenon without being computationally too heavy.