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Research Papers

Causes of Acoustic Resonance in a High-Speed Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Bernd Hellmich

 Kerntech GmbH, Am Forsthaus 8, DE-30890 Barsinghausen, Germanyhellmich@kerntech.de

Joerg R. Seume

Institute of Turbomachinery and Fluid Dynamic, University of Hannover, Appelstrasse 9, DE-30167 Hannover, Germanyseume@tfd.uni-hannover.de

See also Table 1.

J. Turbomach 130(3), 031003 (May 02, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2775487 History: Received July 18, 2006; Revised March 18, 2007; Published May 02, 2008

Nonharmonic acoustic resonance was detected in the static pressure and sound signals in a four-stage high-speed axial compressor when the compressor was operating close to the surge limit. Based on prior research reported in the literature and measurements of the resonance frequency, Mach number of the mean flow, and the axial and circumferential phase shifts of the pressure signal during resonance, it is shown that the acoustic resonance is an axial standing wave of a spinning acoustic mode with three periods around the circumference of the compressor. This phenomenon occurs only if the aerodynamic load in the compressor is high, because the mode needs a high circumferential Mach number for resonance conditions. Mathematics of existing analyses of acoustic resonances in turbomachinery complex and have therefore rarely resulted in published examples of good agreement with real engine data. The present paper provides suitable, physically based simplifications of the existing mathematical models which are applicable for modes with circumferential wavelengths of more than two blade pitches and resonance frequencies considerably higher than the rotor speed.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Turbomachinery laboratory four-stage high-speed axial compressor

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Figure 2

Operating map for nr∕nmax=0.95

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Figure 3

Contour plot of static wall pressure

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Figure 4

Power spectra of wall pressure signals

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Figure 5

Acoustic pressure level close to stability limit

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Figure 6

Scheme of wave scattering at a blade row with nonzero mean flow (36)

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Figure 7

Example of transmission and reflection coefficients for Ma=0.5 and βs=60deg(32)

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Figure 8

Calculated eigenvalues kr,m,n normalized to outer radius over hub ratio

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Figure 9

Example of a (3,1) helical acoustic mode with time series of pressure signals

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Figure 10

Computed cut-off frequency and measured resonance frequency

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Figure 11

Flow angle and incidence angle of helical wave fronts

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Figure 12

Helix slope angle of resonant (3,0) mode and flow angle

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Figure 13

Incidence angle of upstream wave fronts on the rotor

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