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Research Papers

Prestall Behavior of a Transonic Axial Compressor Stage via Time-Accurate Numerical Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Jen-Ping Chen

 The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210

Michael D. Hathaway, Gregory P. Herrick

 Army Research Laboratory, Vehicle Technology Directorate, Cleveland, OH 44135

J. Turbomach 130(4), 041014 (Aug 01, 2008) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2812968 History: Received June 07, 2007; Revised August 20, 2007; Published August 01, 2008

Computational fluid dynamics calculations using high-performance parallel computing were conducted to simulate the prestall flow of a transonic compressor stage, NASA compressor Stage 35. The simulations were run with a full-annulus grid that models the 3D, viscous, unsteady blade row interaction without the need for an artificial inlet distortion to induce stall. The simulation demonstrates the development of the rotating stall from the growth of instabilities. Pressure rise performance and pressure traces are compared with published experimental data before the study of flow evolution prior to the rotating stall. Spatial fast Fourier transform analysis of the flow indicates a rotating long-length disturbance of one rotor circumference, which is followed by a spike-type breakdown. The analysis also links the long-length wave disturbance with the initiation of the spike inception. The spike instabilities occur when the trajectory of the tip clearance flow becomes perpendicular to the axial direction. When approaching stall, the passage shock changes from a single oblique shock to a dual shock, which distorts the perpendicular trajectory of the tip clearance vortex but shows no evidence of flow separation that may contribute to stall.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

NASA high-speed compressor Stage 35

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Figure 2

Experiment pressure traces for clean inlet, 85% design speed, Stage 35, Bright (17)

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Figure 3

Comparison of characteristics at 85%, Bright (17), and 100%, Weigl (27), speeds, Stage 35

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Figure 4

Three-blade-row grid model for the Stage 35 simulation

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Figure 5

Stage 35 computed and measured speedlines, design speed

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Figure 6

Pressure and mass variation during rotating stall at throttle Setting F: (a) Pressure (b) mass flow

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Figure 7

Time history of static pressure variation at eight locations around the annulus located 44% chord ahead of the rotor of Stage 35, throttling Setting F

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Figure 8

Entropy of Stage 35 during stall inception, t=3.8T: Left half annulus and right half annulus, 16% chord upstream of rotor leading edge

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Figure 9

Entropy of Stage 35 during stall inception, t=10T: Left half annulus and right half annulus, 16% chord upstream of rotor leading edge

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Figure 10

Mass flow history at throttle Setting E

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Figure 13

Negative axial velocity at three cut planes, three time instants: (a) Time E1 (2.5T before rotating stall), (b) Time E2 (beginning of rotating stall), and (c) Time E3 (during rotating stall); Left to right, cut plane 1 (4ε), cut plane 2 (1.5ε), cut plane 3 (0.5ε). (d) Left to right, front views of cut-plane 3 (0.5ε) at three time instants, E1, E2, and E3, negative axial velocity.

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Figure 14

First mode disturbances of axial momentum at rotor tip

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Figure 15

Pressure contour near casing: (a) Stable condition and (b) near-stall condition (Time E1)

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Figure 16

Streamlines forming the tip clearance vortex: (a) Stable condition and (b) near-stall condition (Time E1)

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Figure 17

Velocity vector on a meridional plane 30% pitch off pressure surface: (a) Stable condition and (b) near-stall condition (Time E1)

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Figure 18

Tip clearance vortex at Time E2: (a) Deteriorating passage and (b) improving passage

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Figure 19

Tip clearance flow showing spillage over rotor leading edge at Time E2 (a) spillage in deteriorating passage and (b) no spillage in improving passage

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Figure 11

Instantaneous pressure profile at rotor tip

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