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Research Papers

Developments in Hot-Streak Simulators for Turbine Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas Povey, Imran Qureshi

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

J. Turbomach 131(3), 031009 (Apr 09, 2009) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2987240 History: Received September 12, 2007; Revised July 23, 2008; Published April 09, 2009

The importance of understanding the impact of hot-streaks, and temperature distortion in general, on the high pressure turbine is widely appreciated, although it is still generally the case that turbines are designed for uniform inlet temperature—often the predicted peak gas temperature. This is because there is an insufficiency of reliable experimental data both from operating combustors and from rotating turbine experiments in which a combustor representative inlet temperature profile has accurately been simulated. There is increasing interest, therefore, in experiments that attempt to address this deficiency. Combustor (hot-streak) simulators have been implemented in six rotating turbine test facilities for the study of the effects on turbine life, heat transfer, aerodynamics, blade forcing, and efficiency. Three methods have been used to simulate the temperature profile: (a) the use of foreign gas to simulate the density gradients that arise due to temperature differences, (b) heat exchanger temperature distortion generators, and (c) cold gas injection temperature distortion generators. Since 2004 three significant new temperature distortion generators have been commissioned, and this points to the current interest in the field. The three new distortion generators are very different in design. The generator designs are reviewed, and the temperature profiles that were measured are compared in the context of the available data from combustors, which are also collected. A universally accepted terminology for referring to and quantifying temperature distortion in turbines has so far not developed, and this has led to a certain amount of confusion regarding definitions and terminology, both of which have proliferated. A simple means of comparing profiles is adopted in the paper and is a possible candidate for future use. New whole-field combustor measurements are presented, and the design of an advanced simulator, which has recently been commissioned to simulate both radial and circumferential temperature nonuniformity profiles in the QinetiQ/Oxford Isentropic Light Piston Turbine Test Facility, is presented.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 13

Cross section of the MIT OTDF generators (from Shang (22))

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Figure 14

The MIT RTDF temperature profile (from Shang (22))

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Figure 15

NGV exit total temperature contours due to hot-streak injection over the domain of one hot-streak or three NGVs (Shang (21))

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Figure 16

The OTDF injection system installed on the QinetiQ ILPF in 2002, showing (1) outer annular feed, (2) inner annular feed, (3) radial slot feeds, and (4) NGV inlet plane

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Figure 17

Measured nondimensional temperature distribution for the OTDF profile (first ITD generator) at the NGV inlet plane

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Figure 18

Measured radial temperature profile for the OTDF profile (first ITD generator) at the NGV inlet plane

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Figure 19

Schematic of the AFRL combustor simulator (Fig. 6 from Ref. 1)

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Figure 20

Temperature profiles measured at the simulator exit plane in the AFRL

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Figure 21

Schematic of the combustor-emulator in the TTF at the Ohio State University (from Haldeman (32))

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Figure 22

Typical radial profile measured in the Ohio State University TTF (from Haldeman (32))

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Figure 23

The target EOTDF temperature profile

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Figure 24

Cross-section of the second generation combustor simulator

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Figure 25

Hot and cold stream mass flow rates for a typical run

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Figure 26

Hot and cold stream temperatures for a typical run

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Figure 27

Measured total pressure profiles for uniform inlet temperature and EOTDF

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Figure 28

Measured EOTDF temperature distributions for traverses 1a and 1b

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Figure 29

Measured radial temperature profile

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Figure 30

Comparison of simulated temperature profiles

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Figure 1

Measured combustor radial profiles from Goebel (10)

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Figure 2

Measured combustor radial profiles from Barringer (9)

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Figure 3

Combustor exit radial profiles measured in a QinetiQ military engine (Povey (2)) and in a Rolls-Royce engine at an extreme point in the cycle

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Figure 4

Measured (QinetiQ) combustor exit temperature profile in a military engine from Povey (2)

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Figure 5

Measured combustor exit temperature profile in experimental combustor at the Japanese Defense Agency TRDI (adapted from Suzuki (11))

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Figure 6

Combustor exit temperature profile measured (Rolls-Royce) across one burner pitch of a modern engine at an extreme point in the cycle

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Figure 7

Flow path through the CERTS inlet to the NASA Lewis Research Center Warm Core Turbine Test Facility (from Stabe (14))

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Figure 8

CERTS inlet radial temperature variation (from Stabe (14))

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Figure 9

Schematic of the LSRR single hot-streak generator (from Butler (15))

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Figure 10

Temperature profile measured in the LSRR hot-streak generator (from Butler (15))

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Figure 11

The LSRR radial temperature profile generator (from Joslyn and Dring (17))

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Figure 12

Schematic of the MIT RTDF and OTDF generators (from Shang (22))

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