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Research Papers

Considerations of a Double-Wall Cooling Design to Reduce Sand Blockage

[+] Author and Article Information
Camron C. Land

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061

Chris Joe

Pratt and Whitney, United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, CT 06108

Karen A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803

J. Turbomach 132(3), 031011 (Mar 25, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3153308 History: Received March 03, 2009; Revised March 04, 2009; Published March 25, 2010; Online March 25, 2010

Abstract

Gas turbine engines use innovative cooling techniques to keep metal temperatures down while pushing the main gas temperature as high as possible. Cooling technologies such as film-cooling and impingement-cooling are generally used to reduce metal temperatures of the various components in the combustor and turbine sections. As cooling passages become more complicated, ingested particles can block these passages and greatly reduce the life of hot section components. This study investigates a double-walled cooling geometry with impingement- and film-cooling. A number of parameters were simulated to investigate the success of using impingement jets to reduce the size of particles in the cooling passages. Pressure ratios typically ranged between those used for combustor liner cooling and for blade outer air seal cooling whereby both these locations typically use double-walled liners. The results obtained in this study are applicable to more intricate geometries where the need to promote particle breakup exists. Results indicated that ingested sand had a large distribution of particle sizes where particles greater than $150 μm$ are primarily responsible for blocking the cooling passages. Results also showed that the blockage from these large particles was significantly influenced and can be significantly reduced by controlling the spacing between the film-cooling and impingement-cooling plates.

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Figures

Figure 1

The alignment of the impingement jets with respect to the film-cooling jets (+=impingement jets and deg=film-cooling jets)

Figure 2

The hole layout for the impingement- and film-cooling arrays

Figure 3

Test apparatus for supplying the sand-air mixture to the test coupon

Figure 4

Baseline flow parameter for all tests using a clean test coupon

Figure 5

Pressure ratio and flow parameter versus time (staggered, S/DI=6.25, 0.35 g, 0<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 6

Flow parameter baseline and repeated sand tests (staggered, S/DI=3.13, 0.35 g, 0<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 7

Percentage of particles under size versus sand diameter for three measurement methods

Figure 8

Reduction in flow parameter for varying sand amounts (staggered, S/DI=3.13, 0<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 9

Reduction in flow parameter for sand amounts (staggered, S/DI=3.13, 0<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 10

Reduction in flow for different cases. Note that two samples were sieved (150–3800 μm) and the other was not (0–3800 μm).

Figure 11

Reduction in flow parameter for varying S/DI (staggered, 0.35 g, 150<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 12

Reduction in flow parameter for different plate spacings at different pressure ratios (staggered, 0.35 g, 150<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 13

Pictures taken on the upstream side of the film-cooling plate at varying S/DI values (PR=1.3, 0.35 g, staggered, 150<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 14

Reduction in flow parameter for different alignments (S/DI=3.13, 0.35 g, 150<DS<3800 μm)

Figure 15

Reduction in flow parameter for different plate spacings and alignments (PR=1.3, 0.35 g, 150<DS<3800 μm)

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