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Research Papers

Comparison of Discharge Coefficient Measurements and Correlations for Orifices With Cross-Flow and Rotation

[+] Author and Article Information
Marcus Hüning

Birkenhof 6, Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15831 Germanymarcus.huening@web.de

J. Turbomach 132(3), 031017 (Apr 05, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3147102 History: Received August 26, 2008; Revised March 01, 2009; Published April 05, 2010; Online April 05, 2010

Gas turbines and jet engines consist of a network of connected cavities beside the main gas path called the secondary air system. These cavities, which are often surrounded by stationary and high angular speed rotating walls are exposed to varying pressure and temperature levels of air or oil contaminated air and are connected to each other by orifices or restrictors. It is vital to control the secondary flow to enable a reliable and efficient engine design, which meets component durability with a minimum of parasitic air consumption. It is essential to understand the flow physics as well as network interdependency in order to minimize the flow consumption and yet meeting engine operating requirements, as well as practical parts component design or manufacturing needs. In this connection, computer network codes containing model conceptions, which can accurately predict orifice flows, are essential. In an effort to provide usable further insight into flows across restrictors, such as orifices, this publication compares test results and orifice loss calculation models from the open literature with the aid of transformation laws and contour plots. The influence of different geometric features is incorporated into a model for the calculation of discharge coefficients. This publication is an extract of the underlying widespread and more detailed ASME paper (Huening, 2008, “Comparison of Discharge Coefficient Measurements and Correlations for Several Orifice Designs With Cross-Flow and Rotation Around Several Axes,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50976). Minor errors, noticed during adapting, are corrected.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 8

CD of correlated (long) orifices with inlet radius for a pressure ratio of 1.6 using (3)

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Figure 9

CD/CD,i=0 for radiused orifices from Ref. 2

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Figure 10

Impact of incidence angle on discharge coefficient based on Ref. 2 for l/d=1.25

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Figure 11

Impact of incidence angle on discharge coefficient with determined correlation for l/d=1.25

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Figure 12

Impact of incidence angle on discharge coefficient based on Ref. 13 for l/d=1.25

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Figure 13

Comparison of discharge coefficient based on Ref. 19 with the determined correlation

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Figure 1

Orifice flow with vena contracta

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Figure 2

Orifice geometries

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Figure 3

CD of radiused (long) orifices

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Figure 4

CD of incompressible (long) orifices with inlet radius

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Figure 5

CD of correlated (long) orifices with inlet radius for a pressure ratio of 1.6

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Figure 6

CD of (long) orifices with inlet radius for a pressure ratio of 1.6 derived from Ref. 17

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Figure 7

Overview about geometries of radiused orifice studies with cross-flow

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