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Research Papers

Aerodynamic Performance of Suction-Side Gill Region Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Justin Chappell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Drive, MEB 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9208

Phil Ligrani1

 University of Oxford, 17 Foundry House, Walton Well Road, Oxford OX2 6AQ, Englandp_ligrani@msn.com

Sri Sreekanth

 Pratt and Whitney Canada, 1801 Courtney Park Drive East, Mississauga, ON L5A 3S8, Canadasri.sreekanth@pwc.ca

Terry Lucas

 Pratt and Whitney Canada, 1000 Marie-victorin, Longueuil, QC, J4G 1A1, Canadaterrance.lucas@pwc.ca

Edward Vlasic

 Pratt and Whitney Canada, 1000 Marie-victorin, Longueuil, QC, J4G 1A1, Canadaedward.vlasic@pwc.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Turbomach 132(3), 031020 (Apr 07, 2010) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3151603 History: Received February 12, 2009; Revised February 26, 2009; Published April 07, 2010; Online April 07, 2010

The performance of suction-side gill region film cooling is investigated using the University of Utah transonic wind tunnel and a simulated turbine vane in a two-dimensional cascade. The effects of film cooling hole orientation, shape, and number of rows, and their resulting effects on the aerodynamic losses, are considered for four different hole configurations: round axial (RA), shaped axial (SA), round radial (RR), and round compound (RC). The mainstream Reynolds number based on axial chord is 500,000, exit Mach number is 0.35, and the tests are conducted using the first row of holes, or both rows of holes at blowing ratios of 0.6 and 1.2. Carbon dioxide is used as the injectant to achieve density ratios of 1.77–1.99 similar to values present in operating gas turbine engines. Presented are the local distributions of total pressure loss coefficient, local normalized exit Mach number, and local normalized exit kinetic energy. Integrated aerodynamic losses (IAL) increase anywhere from 4% to 45% compared with a smooth blade with no film injection. The performance of each hole type depends on the airfoil configuration, film cooling configuration, mainstream flow Mach number, number of rows of holes, density ratio, and blowing ratio, but the general trend is an increase in IAL as either the blowing ratio or the number of rows of holes increase. In general, the largest total pressure loss coefficient Cp magnitudes and the largest IAL are generally present at any particular wake location for the RR or SA configurations, regardless of the film cooling blowing ratio and number of holes. The SA holes also generally produce the highest local peak Cp magnitudes. IAL magnitudes are generally lowest with the RA hole configuration. A one-dimensional mixing loss correlation for normalized IAL values is also presented, which matches most of the both rows data for RA, SA, RR, and RC hole configurations. The equation also provides good representation of the RA, RC, and RR first row data sets.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

University of Utah TWT

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Figure 2

Schematic of the test section

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Figure 3

Film cooling hole configurations: (a) RA, (b) RR, (c) SA, and (d) RC

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Figure 4

Film cooling hole locations

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Figure 5

Vane Mach number distribution

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Figure 6

Vane film cooling hole discharge coefficients for first row of holes only

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Figure 7

Vane film cooling hole discharge coefficients for both rows of holes. Symbols and lines are defined in Fig. 6.

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Figure 8

Local pressure loss coefficient profiles for injection from the first row of holes only with a blowing ratio of 0.6

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Figure 9

Local pressure loss coefficient profiles for injection from the first row of holes only with a blowing ratio of 1.2

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Figure 10

Local pressure loss coefficient profiles for injection from both rows of holes with a blowing ratio of 0.6

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Figure 11

Local pressure loss coefficient profiles for injection from both rows of holes with a blowing ratio of 1.2

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Figure 12

Aerodynamic loss profiles for the RA holes: (a) pressure loss coefficients, (b) normalized Mach numbers, and (c) normalized kinetic energies

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Figure 13

Aerodynamic loss profiles for the RR holes: (a) pressure loss coefficients, (b) normalized Mach numbers, and (c) normalized kinetic energies

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Figure 14

Aerodynamic loss profiles for the RC holes: (a) pressure loss coefficients, (b) normalized Mach numbers, and (c) normalized kinetic energies

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Figure 15

Aerodynamic loss profiles for the SA holes: (a) pressure loss coefficients, (b) normalized Mach numbers, and (c) normalized kinetic energies

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Figure 16

Dimensional integrated aerodynamic loss values for different hole configurations, number of rows of holes, and blowing ratios

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Figure 17

Normalized integrated aerodynamic loss values for different hole configurations for film injection from the first row of holes only

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Figure 18

Normalized integrated aerodynamic loss values for different hole configurations for film injection from both rows of holes. Symbols are defined in Fig. 1.

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Figure 19

Normalized integrated aerodynamic loss values for different hole configurations for film injection from the first row of holes only, including comparisons with the data of Jackson (21)

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Figure 20

Comparison of area-averaged loss coefficients with values from Ref. 28

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