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Research Papers

High-Fidelity Numerical Analysis of Per-Rev-Type Inlet Distortion Transfer in Multistage Fans—Part II: Entire Component Simulation and Investigation

[+] Author and Article Information
Jixian Yao

 GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309

Steven E. Gorrell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, 435 CTB, Provo, UT 84602

Aspi R. Wadia

 GE Aviation, 30 Merchant Street, P20, Cincinnati, OH 45215

J. Turbomach 132(4), 041015 (May 06, 2010) (17 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3148479 History: Received September 09, 2008; Revised January 28, 2009; Published May 06, 2010; Online May 06, 2010

Part I of this paper validated the ability of the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver PTURBO to accurately simulate distortion transfer and generation through selected blade rows of two multistage fans. In this part, unsteady RANS calculations were successfully applied to predict the 1/rev inlet total pressure distortion transfer in the entirety of two differently designed multistage fans. This paper demonstrates that high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used early in the design process for verification purposes before hardware is built and can be used to reduce the number of distortion tests, hence reducing engine development cost. The unsteady RANS code PTURBO demonstrated remarkable agreement with the data, accurately capturing both the magnitude and the profile of total pressure and total temperature measurements. Detailed analysis of the flow physics identified from the CFD results has led to a thorough understanding of the total temperature distortion generation and transfer mechanism, especially for the spatial phase difference of total pressure and total temperature profiles. The analysis illustrates that the static parameters are more revealing than their stagnation counterpart and that pressure and temperature rise are more revealing while the pressure and temperature ratio could be misleading. The last stage is effectively throttled by the inlet distortion even though the overall engine throttle remains unchanged. The total temperature distortion generally grows as flow passes through the fan stages.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Computational domain and grid of the first multistage fan (not drawn to scale)

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Figure 2

Boundary conditions of the first multistage fan: 1/rev total pressure distortion at inlet (a) and the static pressure distribution at Stator-3 exit ((b) and (c)). [(Pt−P¯t)/P¯t]% is plotted in (a), and [(Ps−P¯s)/P¯s]% is plotted in (b) and (c).

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Figure 3

Computational domain and grid of the second multistage fan (not drawn to scale)

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Figure 4

Boundary conditions of the second multistage fan: 1/rev total pressure distortion at inlet (a) and the static pressure distribution at Stator-3 exit (b). [(Pt−P¯t)/P¯t]% is plotted in (a) and [(Ps−P¯s)/P¯s]% is plotted in (b).

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Figure 5

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 10% immersion; first fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 6

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 30% immersion; first fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 7

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 50% immersion; first fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 8

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 70% immersion; first fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 9

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 90% immersion; first fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 10

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 30% immersion. First fan, near-stall condition.

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Figure 11

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 50% immersion. First fan, near-stall condition.

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Figure 12

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 70% immersion. First fan, near-stall condition.

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Figure 13

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 10% immersion; second fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 14

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 30% immersion; second fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 15

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 50% immersion; second fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 16

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 70% immersion; second fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 17

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature profiles at about 90% immersion; second fan. Lines with rapid oscillation are the time instantaneous solution. Overlaid smoother lines are time-averaged solution. Solid symbols are measured data.

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Figure 18

Static pressure and static temperature profiles of the first fan at about 50% immersion

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Figure 19

Density and absolute velocity profiles of the first fan at about 50% immersion

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Figure 20

Static pressure and static temperature rise across the first fan at 50% immersion

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Figure 21

Static pressure and static temperature rise across the second fan at 50% immersion

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Figure 22

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 10% immersion; first fan

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Figure 23

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 50% immersion; first fan

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Figure 24

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 90% immersion; first fan

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Figure 25

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 10% immersion; second fan

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Figure 26

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 50% immersion; second fan

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Figure 27

Comparison of total pressure and total temperature distortion levels at about 90% immersion; second fan

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Figure 28

Induced swirl at inlet and swirl distortion transfer of the first fan at 50% immersion

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