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Research Papers

The Effects of Freestream Turbulence, Turbulence Length Scale, and Exit Reynolds Number on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer in a Transonic Cascade

[+] Author and Article Information
J. S. Carullo, S. Nasir, R. D. Cress, W. F. Ng

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061

K. A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

L. J. Zhang, H. K. Moon

 Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA 92101

J. Turbomach 133(1), 011030 (Sep 28, 2010) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001366 History: Received January 03, 2008; Revised January 29, 2010; Published September 28, 2010; Online September 28, 2010

This paper experimentally investigates the effect of high freestream turbulence intensity, turbulence length scale, and exit Reynolds number on the surface heat transfer distribution of a turbine blade at realistic engine Mach numbers. Passive turbulence grids were used to generate freestream turbulence levels of 2%, 12%, and 14% at the cascade inlet. The turbulence grids produced length scales normalized by the blade pitches of 0.02, 0.26, and 0.41, respectively. Surface heat transfer measurements were made at the midspan of the blade using thin film gauges. Experiments were performed at the exit Mach numbers of 0.55, 0.78, and 1.03, which represent flow conditions below, near, and above nominal conditions. The exit Mach numbers tested correspond to exit Reynolds numbers of 6×105, 8×105, and 11×105, based on true chord. The experimental results showed that the high freestream turbulence augmented the heat transfer on both the pressure and suction sides of the blade as compared with the low freestream turbulence case. At nominal conditions, exit Mach 0.78, average heat transfer augmentations of 23% and 35% were observed on the pressure side and suction side of the blade, respectively.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Transonic cascade wind tunnel

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Figure 2

Cascade diagram showing the blades and the axis orientation for measurements with the traverse

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Figure 3

Picture of thin film gauges in wind tunnel

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Figure 4

Turbulence grids (a) mesh grid, Tu=12% and (b) bar grid, Tu=14%

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Figure 5

Turbulence grid location relative to the test section for the (a) mesh grid and (b) bar grid

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Figure 6

Turbulence intensity along inlet pitch

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Figure 7

Integral length scale along inlet pitch

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Figure 8

Turbulence decay from grids

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Figure 9

Length scale growth from grids

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Figure 10

Velocity ratio distribution along inlet pitch

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Figure 11

Local Mach number distribution

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Figure 12

Flow periodicity through blade passages

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Figure 13

Acceleration parameter distribution

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Figure 14

Heat transfer distribution at exit Ma 0.55

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Figure 15

Heat transfer distribution at exit Ma 0.78

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Figure 16

Heat transfer distribution at exit Ma 1.03

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Figure 17

Heat transfer augmentation at exit Ma 0.55

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Figure 18

Heat transfer augmentation at exit Ma 0.78

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Figure 19

Heat transfer augmentation at exit Ma 1.03

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Figure 20

Suction side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 0.55

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Figure 21

Suction side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 0.78

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Figure 22

Suction side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 1.03

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Figure 23

Pressure side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 0.55

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Figure 24

Pressure side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 0.78

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Figure 25

Pressure side data compared with the flat plate correlations at exit Ma 1.03

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Figure 26

Heat transfer distribution at Tu=2%

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Figure 27

Heat transfer distribution at Tu=12%

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Figure 28

Heat transfer distribution at Tu=14%

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Figure 29

Correlation comparison of Van Fossen (23)

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Figure 30

TEXSTAN prediction at exit Ma 0.78, 2% Tu

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Figure 31

TEXSTAN prediction at exit Ma 0.78, 12% Tu

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