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Research Papers

Effects of Simulated Particle Deposition on Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
S. A. Lawson, K. A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

J. Turbomach 133(2), 021009 (Oct 21, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000571 History: Received July 20, 2009; Revised July 20, 2009; Published October 21, 2010; Online October 21, 2010

Diminishing natural gas resources has increased incentive to develop cleaner, more efficient combined-cycle power plants capable of burning alternative fuels such as coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Although syngas is typically filtered, particulate matter still exists in the hot gas path that has proven to be detrimental to the life of turbine components. Solid and molten particles deposit on film-cooled surfaces that can alter cooling dynamics and block cooling holes. To gain an understanding of the effects that particle deposits have on film cooling, a methodology was developed to simulate deposition in a low speed wind tunnel using a low melt wax, which can simulate solid and molten phases. A facility was constructed to simulate particle deposition on a flat plate with a row of film cooling holes. Infrared thermography was used to measure wall temperatures for quantifying spatially resolved adiabatic effectiveness values in the vicinity of the film cooling holes as deposition occurred. Results showed that deposition reduced cooling effectiveness by approximately 20% at momentum flux ratios of 0.23 and 0.5 and only 6% at a momentum flux ratio of 0.95.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the (a) open loop wind tunnel and (b) film cooling endwall

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Figure 2

Centerline effectiveness for I=0.23 with no deposition

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Figure 3

Laterally averaged effectiveness for I=0.23 with no deposition

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Figure 4

Photographs of (a) sand deposition and (b) wax deposition on a cylinder

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Figure 5

Wax particle diameter required to match engine condition Stokes number

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Figure 6

Wax particle size distribution and corresponding Stokes number in lab simulation conditions

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Figure 7

Wax particle temperature relative to travel distance

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Figure 8

ESEM images of (a) coal ash (2) and (b) wax particles

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Figure 9

Photographs illustrating the surface (a) without deposition, (b) with deposition, (c) after background subtraction, (d) after binary conversion, and (e) after median filter

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Figure 10

Effectiveness contour plots at momentum flux ratios of (a) 0.23, (b) 0.5, and (c) 0.95

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Figure 11

Centerline and laterally averaged effectiveness plotted with respect to dimensionless downstream distance for all momentum flux ratios

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Figure 12

Deposition development photographs and corresponding effectiveness contour plots at I=0.23

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Figure 13

Centerline effectiveness development with deposition for I=0.23

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Figure 14

Laterally averaged effectiveness development with deposition for I=0.23

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Figure 15

Histograms of deposit sizes at different stages of deposition for I=0.23

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Figure 16

Deposition development photographs and corresponding effectiveness contour plots at I=0.5

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Figure 17

Deposition development photographs and corresponding effectiveness contour plots at I=0.95

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Figure 18

Area-averaged effectiveness reduction with respect to deposition area coverage for all three momentum flux ratios

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