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Research Papers

Multistage Compressor and Turbine Modeling for the Prediction of the Maximum Turbine Speed Resulting From Shaft Breakage

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Haake, R. Fiola

Department of Engine Performance, Rolls-Royce Deutschland, Dahlewitz, Brandenburg 15827, Germany

S. Staudacher

Institute of Aeroengines and Propulsion, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg 70569, Germany

J. Turbomach 133(2), 021022 (Oct 26, 2010) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001188 History: Received July 26, 2009; Revised August 13, 2009; Published October 26, 2010; Online October 26, 2010

A mathematical model for the prediction of the maximum speed of a high pressure turbine following a shaft failure event was developed. The model predicts the high pressure compressor and ducting system pre- and poststall behaviors such as rotating stall and surge after the shaft breakage. The corresponding time-dependent high pressure turbine inlet conditions are used to calculate the turbine maximum speed, taking into account friction and blade and vane tip clearance variations as a result of the rearward movement of the turbine and destruction of the turbine blading. The compressor and ducting system is modeled by a one-dimensional, stage-by-stage approach. The approach uses a finite-difference numerical technique to solve the nonlinear system of equations for continuity, momentum, and energy including source terms for the compressible flow through inlet ducting, compressor, and combustor. The compressor blade forces and shaft work are provided by a set of quasisteady state stage characteristics being valid for prestall and poststall operations. The maximum turbine speed is calculated from a thermodynamic turbine stand-alone model, derived from a performance synthesis program. Friction and blade and vane tip clearance variations are determined iteratively from graphical data depending on the axial rearward movement of the turbine. The compressor and ducting system model was validated in prestall and poststall operation modes with measured high pressure compressor data of a modern two-shaft engine. The turbine model was validated with measured intermediate pressure shaft failure data of a three-shaft engine. The shaft failure model was applied on a modern two-shaft engine. The model was used to carry out a sensitivity study to demonstrate the impact of control system reactions on the resulting maximum high pressure turbine speed following a shaft failure event.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Overall shaft failure model control volume and boundary conditions

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Figure 2

Overall and element control volumes. (a) Overall compressor and ducting system control volume and boundary conditions. (b) Control volume element.

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Figure 3

Compressor stage characteristics. (a) Compressor stage pressure characteristic. (b) Compressor stage temperature characteristic.

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Figure 4

Combustor efficiency correlation

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Figure 5

Combustor stability correlation

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Figure 6

Overall turbine model control volume and boundary conditions

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Figure 7

Turbine displacement: turbine position XT,1 and turbine position XT,2

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Figure 8

Friction energy versus turbine axial displacement

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Figure 9

Validation model. (a) Overall control volume for the compressor and ducting system model validation. (b) Discretized ten-stage compressor and ducting system model.

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Figure 10

Steady state working line comparison

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Figure 11

Transient working line excursion comparison

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Figure 12

Compressor fuel spiking. (a) Pressure ratio excursion comparison: Δt=0–1.8. (b) Pressure ratio excursion comparison: Δt=0–6.

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Figure 13

Measured and modeled pressure inputs

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Figure 14

Measured and modeled temperature inputs

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Figure 15

Turbine speed comparison

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Figure 16

Friction torque validation

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Figure 17

Overall control volume for the shaft failure model

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Figure 18

Shaft failure simulation: combustor exit total pressure

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Figure 19

Shaft failure simulation: combustor exit total temperature

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Figure 20

Shaft failure simulation: turbine speed

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