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Research Papers

Simulations of Multiphase Particle Deposition on Endwall Film-Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Seth A. Lawson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802seth.lawson9@gmail.com

Karen A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802kthole@psu.edu

J. Turbomach 134(1), 011003 (May 24, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002962 History: Received June 28, 2010; Revised July 01, 2010; Published May 24, 2011; Online May 24, 2011

Demand for clean energy has increased motivation to design gas turbines capable of burning alternative fuels such as coal derived synthesis gas (syngas). One challenge associated with burning coal derived syngas is that trace amounts of particulate matter in the fuel and air can deposit on turbine hardware reducing the effectiveness of film-cooling. For the current study, a method was developed to dynamically simulate multiphase particle deposition through injection of a low melting temperature wax. The method was developed so the effects of deposition on endwall film-cooling could be quantified using a large scale vane cascade in a low speed wind tunnel. A microcrystalline wax was injected into the mainstream flow using atomizing spray nozzles to simulate both solid and molten particulate matter in a turbine gas path. Infrared thermography was used to quantify cooling effectiveness with and without deposition at various locations on a film-cooled endwall. Measured results indicated reductions in adiabatic effectiveness by as much as 30% whereby the reduction was highly dependent on the location of the film-cooling holes relative to the vane.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Illustration of wind tunnel facility

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Figure 2

Endwall film-cooling configuration

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Figure 3

(a) Schematic of wax injection facility and (b) photograph of wax spray nozzle

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Figure 4

Wax particle size range necessary to match Stokes numbers of fly ash particles in engine conditions

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Figure 5

Particle size histograms at a wax flowrate of 1.9 g/s and various atomizing air pressures

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Figure 6

Fly ash and wax particle temperatures plotted with respect to TSP

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Figure 7

Photographs illustrating the (a) composite image, (b) 8 bit image, (c) binary image, and (d) the surface deposition plot

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Figure 8

Deposition photographs and surface deposition plots with no film-cooling for (a) TSPmax=0.3 and (b) TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 9

Adiabatic effectiveness contours at (a) I=0.23, (b) I=0.95, and (c) I=3.6 with no deposition

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Figure 10

Laterally averaged effectiveness of the leading edge cooling holes with no deposition

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Figure 11

Adiabatic effectiveness contours and corresponding surface deposition plots (a) before deposition, (b) after 300 g, (c) after 600 g, and (d) after 900 g of wax injection at I=0.23

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Figure 12

Laterally averaged effectiveness of the leading edge cooling holes after 300 g, 600 g, and 900 g of wax injection at I=0.23

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Figure 13

Area-averaged effectiveness of the leading edge cooling row plotted with respect to deposition area coverage at I=0.23

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Figure 14

Effectiveness contours and surface deposition plots at I=0.23 for (a) no deposition, (b) TSPmax=0.3, and (c) TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 15

Effectiveness contours and surface deposition plots at I=0.95 for (a) no deposition, (b) TSPmax=0.3, and (c) TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 16

Effectiveness contours and surface deposition plots at I=3.6 for (a) no deposition, (b) TSPmax=0.3, and (c) TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 17

Vane leading edge flowfield by Sundaram and Thole (26) for M=2.5

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Figure 18

Leading edge area-averaged effectiveness plotted with respect to blowing ratio for no deposition, TSPmax=0.3, and TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 19

Photographs of leading edge deposition at I=0.23 with (a) TSPmax=0.3 and (b) TSPmax=1.2

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Figure 20

Area-averaged effectiveness reduction for leading edge and passage cooling holes

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