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Research Papers

Novel IGV Designs for Centrifugal Compressors and Their Interaction With the Impeller

[+] Author and Article Information
Arman Mohseni

Institute of Turbomachinery and Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 9, 30167 Hannover, Germanymohseni@tfd.uni-hannover.de

Erik Goldhahn1

Institute of Turbomachinery and Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 9, 30167 Hannover, Germanyerik.goldhahn@airbus.com

René A. Van den Braembussche

Department of Turbomachinery and Propulsion, von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Waterloose steenweg 72, 1640 Sint-Genesius-Rode, Belgiumvdb@vki.ac.be

Joerg R. Seume

Institute of Turbomachinery and Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 9, 30167 Hannover, Germanyseume@tfd.uni-hannover.de

1

Present address: Voith Engineering Services GmbH, on behalf of Airbus Operations GmbH, Airbus Allee 2, 28199 Bremen, Germany.

J. Turbomach. 134(2), 021006 (Jun 22, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003235 History: Received September 15, 2010; Revised October 19, 2010; Published June 22, 2011; Online June 22, 2011

In centrifugal compressors, variable inlet guide vanes (IGVs) are used to control the mass flow rate with negligible change in pressure ratio and shaft speed. The efficient operation of IGVs is limited to the range of aerodynamic stability of their vane profiles. Thin symmetric profiles, which are usually used, tend to exhibit flow separation already at low setting angles, resulting in a rapid decrease in the global efficiency. Three different guide vane profiles, including a symmetric reference profile, a two-piece tandem profile with a variable angle, and an s-cambered profile, together with two auxiliary profiles, were considered. These variants were numerically and experimentally investigated at different setting angles, covering negative and positive inlet swirls, and at different operating points. The results show that tandem and s-cambered vanes have superior aerodynamic performance in comparison with the symmetric reference profile and extend the operating range of the compressor over which the efficiency remains high. The tandem profile shows better aerodynamic performance than the s-cambered profile at negative inlet swirl, while the asymmetric s-cambered profile offers an extended range of high efficiency at positive preswirl. Considering manufacturing requirements and cost, the s-cambered profile is preferred for applications with positive preswirl.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Velocity triangles for zero (gray without primes) and positive preswirls (black with primes) at different mass flow rates: (a) impeller inlet and (b) impeller exit

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Figure 2

Modification of the inlet flow channel: (a) IGV without hub in the original inlet pipe and (b) IGV without hub in the expanded inlet

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Figure 3

IGV with hub in the expanded inlet and the domains of the numerical simulation. “IGV inlet” and “IGV exit” planes define the computation zone of the presented results.

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Figure 4

Velocity distributions on the s-cambered vane at 15 deg stagger after geometry optimization

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Figure 5

IGV vane profiles at zero vane outlet angle

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Figure 6

Variable angle tandem vane with fixed leading part and rotating trailing part

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Figure 7

Iso-Mach contours at different setting angles for the original, s-cambered, and tandem profiles at the same flow conditions (from numerical simulations). (k) and (l) are rescaled for better representation of the high speed flow downstream of the vanes.

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Figure 8

Numerically predicted spanwise (radial) variation of circumferentially averaged static (left) and stagnation (right) pressure for different vane profiles and setting angles

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Figure 9

Numerical results of pitch- and spanwise averaged pressure loss coefficients at different setting angles

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Figure 10

Single-stage centrifugal compressor with variable IGV and vaneless diffuser (simplified)

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Figure 11

Experimental compressor swirl map at corrected speed of 18,000 rpm (1885 rad/s) for the original, s-cambered, and tandem profiles. The 95% confidence interval for total pressure ratio is 0.2%, mass flow rate is 4.0%, shaft speed is 18 rpm (1.9 rad/s), and efficiency is 0.12% (19).

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