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Research Papers

Effects of a Realistically Rough Surface on Vane Heat Transfer Including the Influence of Turbulence Condition and Reynolds Number

[+] Author and Article Information
E. L. Erickson

 Third Wave Systems, 7900 West 78th Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55439ethan.erickson@thirdwavesys.com

F. E. Ames

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202forrestames@mail.und.edu

J. P. Bons

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, 2300 West Case Road, Columbus, OH 43017bons.2@osu.edu

J. Turbomach 134(2), 021013 (Jun 27, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003026 History: Received July 08, 2010; Revised July 09, 2010; Published June 27, 2011; Online June 27, 2011

Heat transfer distributions are experimentally acquired and reported for a vane with both a smooth and a realistically rough surface. Surface heat transfer is investigated over a range of turbulence levels (low (0.7%), grid (8.5%), aerocombustor (13.5%), and aerocombustor with decay (9.5%)) and a range of chord Reynolds numbers (ReC=500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000). The realistically rough surface distribution was generated by Brigham Young University’s accelerated deposition facility. The surface is intended to represent a TBC surface that has accumulated 7500 h of operation with particulate deposition due to a mainstream concentration of 0.02 ppmw. The realistically rough surface was scaled by 11 times for consistency with the vane geometry and cast using a high thermal conductivity epoxy (k=2.1W/m/K) to comply with the vane geometry. The surface was applied over the foil heater covering the vane pressure surface and about 10% of the suction surface. The 958×573 roughness array generated by Brigham Young on a 9.5×5.7mm2 region was averaged to a 320×191 array for fabrication. The calculated surface roughness parameters of this scaled and averaged array included the maximum roughness, Rt=1.99mm, the average roughness, Ra=0.25mm, and the average forward facing angle, αf=3.974deg. The peak to valley roughness, Rz, was determined to be 0.784 mm. The sand grain roughness of the surface (kS=0.466mm) was estimated using a correlation offered by Bons (2005, “A Critical Assessment of Reynolds Analogy for Turbine Flows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 472–485). Based on estimates of skin friction coefficient using a turbulence correlation with the vane chord Reynolds numbers representative values for the surface’s roughness Reynolds number are 23, 43, and 80 for the three exit condition Reynolds numbers tested. Smooth vane heat transfer distributions exhibited significant laminar region augmentation with the elevated turbulence levels. Turbulence also caused early transition on the pressure surface for the higher Reynolds numbers. The rough surface had no significant effect on heat transfer in the laminar regions but caused early transition on the pressure surface in every case.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 13

Vane surface acceleration parameter distributions, ReC=500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000

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Figure 12

Vane pressure surface roughness Reynolds number distributions, with varying turbulence condition and Reynolds number

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Figure 11

Rough vane heat transfer compared with smooth vane distributions, ReC=2,000,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence with and without spool

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Figure 10

Rough vane heat transfer compared with smooth vane distributions, ReC=1,000,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence with and without spool

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Figure 9

Rough vane heat transfer compared with smooth vane distributions, ReC=500,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence with and without spool

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Figure 8

Smooth vane heat transfer distributions compared with boundary layer code predictions, ReC=2,000,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence

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Figure 7

Smooth vane heat transfer distributions compared with boundary layer code predictions, ReC=1,000,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence

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Figure 6

Smooth vane heat transfer distributions compared with boundary layer code predictions, ReC=500,000, low, grid, and aerocombustor turbulence

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Figure 5

Comparison of surface pressure distribution for smooth and rough vanes for ReC=500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000

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Figure 4

Digital photograph of heat transfer vane with high thermal conductivity tiles installed

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Figure 3

Smooth vane surface pressure distribution

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Figure 2

Large scale low speed wind tunnel facility

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Figure 1

Large scale linear cascade test section

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