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Research Papers

Fully Cooled Single Stage HP Transonic Turbine—Part I: Influence of Cooling Mass Flow Variations and Inlet Temperature Profiles on Blade Internal and External Aerodynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
C. W. Haldeman, M. G. Dunn, R. M. Mathison

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43235

J. Turbomach 134(3), 031010 (Jul 15, 2011) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002967 History: Received June 30, 2010; Revised July 01, 2010; Published July 15, 2011; Online July 15, 2011

A fully cooled turbine stage is utilized to investigate the combined effects of turbine stage cooling variation and high-pressure turbine (HPT) vane inlet temperature profile on the aerodynamics and heat transfer of the turbine stage operating at the proper design corrected conditions. Part I of this paper describes the overall experimental matrix, the influence of the cooling mass flows, and temperature profiles from an aerodynamic perspective. The measurements include internal and external pressures for the blade airfoil. Part II of this paper focuses on the influence of these parameters on the heat transfer to the blade airfoil and the stationary blade shroud. The major results show that cooling levels do not significantly affect the external pressure distributions over the majority of the blade and vane. However, aerodynamic effects of cooling levels and temperature profiles are seen for the vane and blade pressure loading on the suction surfaces. The magnitude of these effects ranges from 5% to 10% of the local measurement for the reference case, which is the uniform inlet profile with nominal cooling for this study. Inlet temperature profiles and cooling levels have comparable impacts on pressure loading, but their relative influence changes with location, and Reynolds number and corrected speed variations have the lowest impact on pressure loading changes, with changes below 5% of the local measurements. Another important result is that unlike uncooled experiments, the proper normalizing variable for pressures aft of the vane is not the inlet pressure but a “rotor reference pressure,” which adjusts the total inlet pressure by the increase in pressure resulting from the additional cooling mass flows. For the rotor, this consists primarily of the vane trailing edge cooling flows. This simplified model accounts for the effects of the vane cooling, and isolates the changes due to blade cooling. The spread of the cooling flows through the stage is important to the surface heat-flux, and has an impact on pressure loadings on the suction surface. The data establishes important guidelines for modelers of cooling flows. The changes observed on the suction side of the airfoils are real, but quite small from an engineering design perspective. Thus the pressure levels are stable and relatively independent of cooling levels, which is critical for good heat-transfer predictions.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Honeywell HPT stage located in the facility

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Figure 2

Turbine cooling paths

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Figure 4

Blade pressure sensors at 50% and 90% spans

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Figure 3

Photograph of vane with cooling holes

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Figure 5

Schematic of blade internal cooling pressure sensors with photo

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Figure 6

Residual mass flows

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Figure 7

Temperature profile shape for uniform and radial runs (all cooling levels)

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Figure 8

Inlet pressure profiles, all experimental cases

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Figure 9

Vane pressures (50% span)

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Figure 10

Blade Pressures (50% span)

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Figure 11

Blade pressure 90% span

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Figure 12

Shroud pressure

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Figure 13

Temperature profile effect on blade pressure

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Figure 14

Rotation effects on internal pressures

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Figure 15

Effect of Reynolds number, uniform cooled case

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Figure 16

Uniform cooled pressure distributions as a function of corrected speed

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