An experimental investigation has been conducted to characterize the influence of Reynolds number and surface roughness magnitude and location on compressor cascade performance. Flow field surveys have been conducted in a low-speed, linear compressor cascade. Pressure, velocity, and loss have been measured via a five-hole probe, pitot probe, and pressure taps on the blades. Four different roughness magnitudes, Ra values of 0.38 μm (polished), 1.70 μm (baseline), 2.03 μm (rough 1), and 2.89 μm (rough 2), have been tested. Furthermore, various roughness locations have been examined. In addition to the as manufactured (baseline) and entirely rough blade cases, blades with roughness covering the leading edge, pressure side, and 5%, 20%, 35%, 50%, and 100% of suction side from the leading edge have been studied. All of the tests have been carried out for Reynolds numbers ranging from 300,000 to 640,000. For Reynolds numbers under 500,000, the tested roughnesses do not significantly degrade compressor blade loading or loss. However, loss and blade loading become sensitive to roughness at Reynolds numbers above 550,000. Cascade performance is more sensitive to roughness on the suction side than pressure side. Furthermore, roughness on the aft 2/3 of suction side surface has a greater influence on loss. For a given roughness location, there exists a Reynolds number at which loss begins to significantly increase. Finally, increasing the roughness area on the suction surface from the leading edge reduces the Reynolds number at which the loss begins to increase.