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Research Papers

Effect of Aggressive Inlet Swirl on Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics in an Unshrouded Transonic HP Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Imran Qureshi1 n2

Department of Engineering Science,  University of Oxford,Parks Road,Oxford, OX1 3PJ, UKimran.qureshi@rolls-royce.com

Arrigo Beretta

Turbine Sub-systems,Rolls-Royce PLC,Moor Lane, Derby, DE24 8BJ, UK

Kam Chana, Thomas Povey

Department of Engineering Science,  University of Oxford,Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ, UK

1

Corresponding author.

2

Moved to Rolls-Royce Derby, UK.

J. Turbomach 134(6), 061023 (Sep 04, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004876 History: Received July 12, 2011; Revised July 28, 2011; Published September 04, 2012; Online September 04, 2012

Swirling flows are now widely being used in modern gas turbine combustors to improve the combustion characteristics, flame stability, and reduce emissions. Residual swirl at the combustor exit will affect the performance of the downstream high-pressure (HP) turbine. In order to perform a detailed investigation of the effect of swirl on a full-scale HP turbine stage, a combustor swirl simulator has been designed and commissioned in the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (OTRF), previously located at QinetiQ, Farnborough UK, as the Turbine Test Facility (TTF). The swirl simulator is capable of generating engine-representative combustor exit swirl distributions at the turbine inlet, with yaw and pitch angles of up to ± 40 deg. The turbine test facility is an engine scale, short duration, rotating transonic turbine facility, which simulates the engine representative M, Re, Tu, nondimensional speed, and gas-to-wall temperature ratio at the turbine inlet. The test turbine is a highly loaded unshrouded design (the MT1 turbine). This paper presents time-averaged experimental heat transfer measurements performed on the rotor casing surface, and on the rotor blade surface at 10%, 50%, and 90% span. Time-averaged rotor casing static pressure measurements are also presented. Experimental measurements with and without inlet swirl are compared. The measurements are discussed with the aid of three-dimensional steady and unsteady CFD simulations of the turbine stage. Numerical simulations were conducted using the Rolls-Royce in-house code HYDRA, with and without inlet swirl.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the Oxford Turbine Research Facility

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Figure 2

The working section of the OTRF with the HP turbine stage and turbobrake highlighted

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Figure 3

The assembled inlet swirl simulator module

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Figure 4

Pitch angle profile measured at 0.7 Cax upstream of the NGV inlet with swirl (circles represent measurement points)

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Figure 5

Yaw angle profile measured at 0.7 Cax upstream of the NGV inlet with swirl (circles represent measurement points)

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Figure 6

Measured secondary flow vectors at 0.7 Cax upstream of the NGV inlet with swirl viewed from upstream (bold arrows represent measurement points; thin arrows are interpolated/extrapolated)

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Figure 7

Yaw angle profile at 20% and 80% span; comparison of measurements in the OTRF with the target profile

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Figure 8

(a) Predicted NGV exit static pressure distribution for uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 9

(a) Predicted NGV exit Mach number distribution with uniform inlet and swirl and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 10

(a) Predicted NGV exit total pressure for uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 11

(a) Predicted vane exit whirl angle distribution with uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 12

(a) Predicted rotor relative inlet whirl angle with uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 13

(a) Predicted rotor relative inlet total pressure with uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 14

(a) Predicted rotor relative inlet Mach number with uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 15

(a) Predicted rotor relative exit total pressure with uniform inlet and swirl, and (b) percentage difference with swirl

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Figure 16

(a) Measured heat flux for typical run, (b) temperature reconstructed from measured heat flux, (c) heat flux plotted against reconstructed temperature to obtain Tawby regression, and (d) the Nusselt number

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Figure 17

Measured rotor casing static pressure distribution with uniform inlet and with inlet swirl

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Figure 18

Predicted rotor casing static pressure distribution with uniform inlet and with inlet swirl

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Figure 19

Circumferentially averaged rotor casing static pressure: comparison of measured and predicted distributions

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Figure 20

Rotor casing heat transfer measurements for uniform inlet conditions: (a) measurement points and interpolation grid, (b) area plot of the Nu, and (c) area plot of the computed Taw

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Figure 21

HP rotor casing measurement cassette, and geometric alignment with respect to upstream vanes and swirlers

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Figure 22

Rotor casing heat transfer measurements with inlet swirl, passage C1-C2: (a) measurement points and interpolation grid, (b) area plot of the Nu, and (c) area plot of the computed Taw

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Figure 23

Rotor casing heat transfer measurements with inlet swirl, passage C2-C1: (a) measurement points and interpolation grid, (b) area plot of the Nu, and (c) area plot of the computed Taw

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Figure 24

Rotor casing predicted Nu: (a) uniform, and (b) swirl

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Figure 25

Rotor casing predicted Taw(K): (a) uniform, and (b) swirl

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Figure 26

Circumferentially averaged Nu on rotor casing

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Figure 27

Circumferentially averaged Tawon rotor casing

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Figure 28

Measured HP rotor surface Nu at 10% span

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Figure 29

Measured HP rotor surface Nu at 50% span

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Figure 30

Measured HP rotor surface Nu at 90% span

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Figure 31

Comparison of predicted rotor SS flow pattern for uniform inlet and swirl

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Figure 32

Comparison of predicted rotor PS flow pattern for uniform inlet and swirl

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