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Research Papers

Numerical and Experimental Study of the Performance Effects of Varying Vaneless Space and Vane Solidity in Radial Turbine Stators

[+] Author and Article Information
A. T. Simpson

e-mail: a.simpson@qub.ac.uk

S. W. T. Spence

e-mail: s.w.spence@qub.ac.uk

J. K. Watterson

e-mail: J.Watterson@qub.ac.uk
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Queen's University of Belfast,
Ashby Institute,
Stranmillis Road,
Belfast, BT9 5AH, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received May 2, 2008; final manuscript received August 6, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(3), 031001 (Mar 25, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-08-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4007525 History: Received May 02, 2008; Revised August 06, 2012

An extensive experimental program has been carried out on a 135 mm tip diameter radial turbine using a variety of stator designs, in order to facilitate direct performance comparisons of varying stator vane solidity and the effect of varying the vaneless space. A baseline vaned stator was designed using commercial blade design software, having 15 vanes and a vane trailing edge to rotor leading edge radius ratio (Rte/rle) of 1.13. Two additional series of stator vanes were designed and manufactured; one series having varying vane numbers of 12, 18, 24, and 30, and a further series with Rte/rle ratios of 1.05, 1.175, 1.20, and 1.25. As part of the design process a series of CFD simulations were carried out in order to guide design iterations towards achieving a matched flow capacity for each stator. In this way the variations in the measured stage efficiency could be attributed to the stator passages only, thus allowing direct comparisons to be made. Interstage measurements were taken to capture the static pressure distribution at the rotor inlet and these measurements were then used to validate subsequent numerical models. The overall losses for different stators have been quantified and the variations in the measured and computed efficiency were used to recommend optimum values of vane solidity and Rte/rle.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Grids used for the CFD calculations: n24 stator

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Fig. 2

Final n12 and n30 nozzle rings

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Fig. 3

Final nozzle rings with Rte/rle ratios = 1.05 and 1.25

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Fig. 4

Cross section through the assembled test rig

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Fig. 5

Nondimensional efficiency versus pressure ratio; varying vane number

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Fig. 6

Corrected mass flow rate versus pressure ratio; varying vane number

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Fig. 7

Variation of stage efficiency with vane solidity

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Fig. 8

The CFD predicted static pressure (Pa) distribution for the n12 stator

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Fig. 9

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the n15 stator

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Fig. 10

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the n18 stator

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Fig. 11

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the n24 stator

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Fig. 12

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the n30 stator

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Fig. 21

Measured variation of shroud side static pressure with Rte/rle

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Fig. 20

Shroud side static pressure; Rte/rle = 1.05

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Fig. 19

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the Rte/rle = 1.25 stator

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Fig. 18

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the Rte/rle = 1.20 stator

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Fig. 17

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the Rte/rle = 1.175 stator

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Fig. 16

The CFD predicted and measured static pressure distribution for the Rte/rle = 1.13 stator

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Fig. 15

Variation in efficiency for varying Rte/rle

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Fig. 14

Corrected mass flow rate versus pressure ratio for varying Rte/rle

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Fig. 13

Nondimensionalized efficiency versus pressure ratio for varying Rte/rle

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