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Research Papers

Overall Effectiveness for a Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge With Varying Hole Pitch

[+] Author and Article Information
Thomas E. Dyson

e-mail: tedyson@gmail.com

David G. Bogard

e-mail: dbogard@mail.utexas.edu
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Atul Kohli

Pratt & Whitney,
East Hartford, CT 06108
e-mail: atul.kohli@pw.utc.com

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received March 9, 2012; final manuscript received April 17, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(3), 031011 (Mar 25, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4006872 History: Received March 09, 2012; Revised April 17, 2012

Overall effectiveness, φ, for a simulated turbine blade leading edge was experimentally measured using a model constructed with a relatively high conductivity material selected so that the Biot number of the model matched engine conditions. The model incorporated three rows of cylindrical holes with the center row positioned on the stagnation line. Internally the model used an impingement cooling configuration. Overall effectiveness was measured for pitch variation from 7.6d to 11.6d for blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 3.0, and angle of attack from −7.7 deg to + 7.7 deg. Performance was evaluated for operation with a constant overall mass flow rate of coolant. Consequently when increasing the pitch, the blowing ratio was increased proportionally. The increased blowing ratio resulted in increased impingement cooling internally and increased convective cooling through the holes. The increased internal and convective cooling compensated, to a degree, for the decreased coolant coverage with increased pitch. Performance was evaluated in terms of laterally averaged φ, but also in terms of the minimum φ. The minimum φ evaluation revealed localized hot spots which are arguably more critical to turbine blade durability than the laterally averaged results. For small increases in pitch (from p/d = 7.6 to 9.6) there was only a small decrease in performance, but at p/d = 11.6 a significant reduction was observed.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Bogard, D. G., and Thole, K. A., 2006, “Gas Turbine Film Cooling,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 249–270. [CrossRef]
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Harrison, K., and Bogard, D., 2008, “Use of the Adiabatic Wall Temperature in Film Cooling to Predict Wall Heat Flux and Temperature,” ASME Turbo Expo, Berlin, June 9–13, ASME Paper No. GT2008-51424. [CrossRef]
Mouzon, B. D., Terrell, E. J., Albert, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2005, “Net Heat Flux Reduction and Overall Effectiveness for a Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME Turbo Expo, Reno, NV, June 6–9, ASME Paper No. GT2005-69002. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., and Bogard, D. G., 1996, “Film Cooling with Compound Angle Holes: Adiabatic Effectivess,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118(4), pp. 807–814. [CrossRef]
Pichon, Y., 2009, “Turbulence Field Measurements for the Small Wind Tunnel,” TTCRL Internal Report, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Johnson, R., Maikell, J., Bogard, D., Piggush, J., Kohli, A., and Blair, M., 2009, “Experimental Study of the Effects of an Oscillating Approach Flow on Overall Cooling Performance of a Simulated Turbine Blade Leading Edge,” ASME Turbo Expo, Orlando, FL, June 8–12, ASME Paper No. GT2009-60290. [CrossRef]
Moffat, R. J., 1985, “Using Uncertainty Analysis in the Planning of an Experiment,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107(2), pp. 173–178. [CrossRef]
Dobrowolski, L. D., Bogard, D. G., Piggush, J., and Kohli, K., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of a Simulated Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge Including Heat Transfer Effects,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, FL, November 13–19, ASME Paper No. IMECE2009-11670. [CrossRef]
Dobrowolski, L. D., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of a Film Cooled Turbine Blade Leading Edge Including Heat Transfer Effects,” M.S. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

Figures

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Fig. 3

Typical side-view IR image showing an α of 0 deg

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Fig. 4

IR calibration data for the P25 camera

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Fig. 2

Cross section of the leading edge model

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Fig. 1

Diagram of the TTCRL facility [5]

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Fig. 5

Contours of η for p/d = 7.6 with M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 6

Contours of φ for p/d = 7.6 with M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 14

φ¯ comparison for M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 4.6 deg

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Fig. 15

¯¯φ as a function of the coolant mass flow rate per pitch

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Fig. 16

φmin averaged over 0 < x/d < 8

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Fig. 7

Contours of φ for p/d values of 7.6 (a), 8.6 (b), 9.6 (c), and 11.6 (d) with M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 8

φ¯ comparison for M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 9

φmin comparison for M = 2.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 10

φ¯ comparison for M = 1.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 11

φ¯ comparison for M = 3.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 12

Contours of φ for p/d values of 7.6 (a), 8.6 (b), 9.6 (c), and 11.6 (d) with M = 3.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 13

φmin comparison for M = 3.0, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 17

Local φ at x/d = 2 for all pitches at M = 2, DR = 1.5, and α = 0 deg

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Fig. 18

Variations of φ¯ and φmin with pitch between holes at x/d = 2

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