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Research Papers

Flow Structures in the Tip Region for a Transonic Compressor Rotor

[+] Author and Article Information
Juan Du

e-mail: dujuan111@gmail.com

Chaoqun Nie

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

Christoph Biela

Technische Universität Darmstadt
Petersenstrasse 30, 64287,
Darmstadt, Germany

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received March 14, 2012; final manuscript received April 11, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(3), 031012 (Mar 25, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4006779 History: Received March 14, 2012; Revised April 11, 2012

Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate flow structures in the tip region for an axial transonic rotor, with careful comparisons with the experimental results. The calculated performance curve and two-dimensional (2D) flow structures observed at casing, such as the shock wave, the expansion wave around the leading edge, and the tip leakage flow at peak efficiency and near-stall points, are all captured by simulation results, which agree with the experimental data well. An in-depth analysis of three-dimensional flow structures reveals three features: (1) there exists an interface between the incoming main flow and the tip leakage flow, (2) in this rotor the tip leakage flows along the blade chord can be divided into at least two parts according to the blade loading distribution, and (3) each part plays a different role on the stall inception mechanism in the leakage flow dominated region. A model of three-dimensional flow structures of tip leakage flow is thus proposed accordingly. In the second half of this paper, the unsteady features of the tip leakage flows, which emerge at the operating points close to stall, are presented and validated with experiment observations. The numerical results in the rotor relative reference frame are first converted to the casing absolute reference frame before compared with the measurements in experiments. It is found that the main frequency components of simulation at absolute reference frame match well with those measured in the experiments. The mechanism of the unsteadiness and its significance to stability enhancement design are then discussed based on the details of the flow field obtained through numerical simulations.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

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Schulze, G., Blaha, C., Hennecke, D., and Henne, J., 1995, “The Performance of a New Axial Single Stage Transonic Compressor,” Proceedings of the 12th ISABE, Melbourne, Australia, March 20–23, Paper No. ISABE-95-7072.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational zone for single blade passage

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Fig. 2

Calculated and experimental total pressure ratio performance curve at design rotor speed

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Fig. 3

Calculated and experimental adiabatic efficiency performance curve at design rotor speed

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Fig. 4

Calculated and experimental static pressure contours at casing at point PE

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Fig. 5

Calculated and experimental static pressure contours at casing at point NS

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Fig. 6

Relative Mach number contours at 99% span, a plane at the middle of the tip clearance, at point PE and NS

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Fig. 7

Three-dimensional relative total pressure contours at point PE and NS, showing the existence of the region dominated by tip leakage flow and its interface with the main flow

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Fig. 8

The streamlines released in tip region at point PE. The colors are axial velocity component. (a) The streamlines all over the entire chord. (b) The streamlines over the first 80% chord. (c) The streamlines over the last 20% chord.

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Fig. 9

Illustration of tip leakage flows and their evolvements

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Fig. 10

Blade loading distribution at point PE and NS

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Fig. 11

The instantaneous streamlines released in tip region at the point NS at 45/40 T. The colors are axial velocity component. (a) The streamlines all over the entire chord. (b) The streamlines over the first 50% chord. (c) The streamlines over the last 50% chord.

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Fig. 12

The schematic of the 3D flow structures of tip leakage flows

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Fig. 13

Instantaneous static pressure contours at casing surface at eight time instants

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Fig. 14

Static pressure contours at 90% span and streamlines over the last half chord in the middle of the tip region at two different time instants

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Fig. 15

Static pressure standard deviation contours on pressure side and suction side surfaces at point near stall

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Fig. 16

Calculated and experimental standard deviation of static pressure distribution

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Fig. 17

Locations of monitoring points

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Fig. 18

Frequency and amplitude characteristics in tip region within relative reference frame

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Fig. 19

The illustration of how to convert the calculated rotor reference frame data to the casing virtual probe data

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Fig. 20

The comparison of frequency spectra on the casing absolute with the rotor relative reference frame

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Fig. 21

Frequency of signals in absolute reference frame of experiment and simulation

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