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Research Papers

Experimental Investigation of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor With Axisymmetric and Nonaxisymmetric Recirculation Device

[+] Author and Article Information
Hideaki Tamaki

Turbo Machinery and Engine Technology Department,
IHI Corporation,
1, Shin-Nakahara-Cho,
Isogo-Ku, Yokohama 235-8501, Japan
e-mail: hideaki_tamaki@ihi.co.jp

Yangjun Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy,
Tshingua University, Beijing 100084, China

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 1, 2012; final manuscript received August 24, 2012; published online March 25, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(3), 031023 (Mar 25, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1108; doi: 10.1115/1.4007579 History: Received July 01, 2012; Revised August 24, 2012

Centrifugal compressors used for turbochargers are required to have a wide operating range. A recirculation device, which consists of a bleed slot, an upstream slot, and an annular cavity connecting both slots, is often used with them. It improves the incidence angle of the impeller leading edge, i.e., the blade loading of the inducer, at low flow rates due to the recirculation flow supplied to the compressor inlet. However, the compressor efficiency drops when there is a recirculation flow from the bleed slot to the upstream slot. A one dimensional analysis in the first section of this paper showed that the reduction in the compressor efficiency can be lowered by decreasing the pressure drop or reducing the recirculation flow rate within the recirculation device. This study examined the possibility of improvement in the compressor efficiency by the use of a recirculation device with an asymmetric bleed slot. An impeller of a turbocharger compressor is normally contained in a volute. Since the geometry of the volute is not axisymmetric, the impeller is surrounded by an asymmetric flow field. Hence each impeller passage, which is formed by two adjacent full blades, is operated at a different operating point. This means that some of the passages need the improvement in the blade loading by the recirculation device but others do not. There is a possibility that this is realized by a recirculation device with an asymmetrically distributed bleed slot, called a nonaxisymmetric recirculation device in this paper. If the asymmetric bleed slot shortens the average distance between the bleed slot and upstream slot or reduces the area of the bleed slot, it can reduce the pressure drop or recirculation flow rate within the recirculation deviceand, hence, can improve the compressor efficiency. This study discusses the characteristics of high pressure ratio compressors for turbochargers without the recirculation device and those with the recirculation device with an axisymmetric bleed slot. Furthermore, the effects of nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices on the compressor characteristics are experimentally investigated. Two types of nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices were tested. One had the bleed slot of a sine wave pattern. The other had the bleed slot partially channeled in the circumferential direction. There were appropriate positions relative to the volute for both nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices. The compressor efficiency with nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices was higher than that with axisymmetric recirculation devices and the surge lines of the compressor with nonaxisymmetric recirculation devices were located at a flow rate lower than or equal to those with the axisymmetric recirculation devices.

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References

Hunziker, R., DickmannH.-P., and Emmrich, R., 2001, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Centrifugal Compressor With an Inducer Casing Bleed System,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A., 215, pp. 783–791. [CrossRef]
Sivagnanasundaram, S., Spence, S., Early, J., and Nikpour, B., 2010, “An Investigation of Compressor Map Width Enhancement and the Inducer Flow Field Using Various Configurations of Shroud Bleed Slot,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22154. [CrossRef]
Cumpsty, N. A., 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, UK, pp. 303–309.
Whitfield, A. and Baines, N. C., 1990, Design of Radial Turbomachines, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, UK, pp. 131–134.
Fink, D. A., Cumpsty, N. A., and Greitzer, E. M., 1992, “Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114 (2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]
Fisher, F. B., 1988, “Application of Map Width Enhancement Devices to Turbocharger Compressors Stages,” SAE Paper No. 880794 [CrossRef].
Zheng, X., Zhang, J., Bamba, T., Tamaki, H., and Yang, M., 2010, “Stability Improvement by High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control: Part II—Non-Axisymmetric Self-Recirculation-Casing-Treatment,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22582. [CrossRef]
Yang, M., Martinez-Botas, R., Zhang, Y., Zheng, X., Tamaki, H., Bamba, T., and Li, Z., 2011, “Investigation of Self-Recycling-Casing-Treatment (SRCT) Influence on Stability of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor With a Volute,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45065 [CrossRef].
Yang, M., Zheng, X., Zhang, J., Bamba, T., Tamaki, H., Huenteler, J., and Li, Z., 2010, “Stability Improvement by High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control: Part I—Non-Axisymmetric Flow in Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22581. [CrossRef]
Tamaki, H., Unno, M., Kawakubo, T., and Hirata, Y., 2009, “Aerodynamic Design to Increase Pressure Ratio of Centrifugal Compressors for Turbochargers,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59160. [CrossRef]
Tamaki, H., 2012, “Effect of Recirculation Device With Counter Swirl Vane on Performance of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134, p. 051036. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of a conventional recirculation device

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Fig. 2

One-dimensional model of the recirculation device: (a) existence of a recirculation flow, and (b) near choke condition

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Fig. 3

Picture of the investigated compressor

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Fig. 4

Compressor characteristics of the SW and CT: (a) pressure ratio of the SW and CT, and (b) efficiency of the SW and CT

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Fig. 5

Circumferential variation of the static pressure distribution of the SW at 1.14R3

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Fig. 6

Original recirculation device of the CT

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Fig. 7

Circumferential variation of the static pressure distribution of the SW and CT at 1.14R3

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Fig. 8

Circumferential variation of the static pressure distribution at 0.224H and 0.112H near surge

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Fig. 9

Static pressure distribution between full blades: (a) Mu = 1.54, and (b) design peripheral Mach number of Mu = 1.62

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Fig. 10

Static pressure distribution at 0.112H of the SW and CT: (a) circumferential variation of the static pressure distribution at 0.112H near surge of the SW and CT, and (b) circumferentially average static pressure at 0.112H

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Fig. 11

Nonaxisymmetric recirculation device ASCT1: (a) bleed slot of the ASCT1 and CT, and (b) the tested compressor casing

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Fig. 12

Circumferential position of the ASCT1

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Fig. 13

Recirculation device of the CT1

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Fig. 14

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT1: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT1 and SW, and (b) efficiency of the ASCT1

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Fig. 15

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT1-1 and CT1: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT1-1, CT1, CT, and SW, (b) efficiency of the ASCT1 and CT, and (c) efficiency of the CT1 and CT

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Fig. 16

Static pressure distribution along the impeller shroud and the entropy distribution near the bleed slot: (a) static pressure distribution (SW), (b) static pressure distribution (CT), (c) static pressure distribution (CT1), and (d) circumferentially averaged entropy distribution

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Fig. 17

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT1-1 with a sealed upstream slot, SW, and ASCT1-1

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Fig. 18

New type of nonaxisymmetric recirculation device: (a) circumferential position of the ASCT2, and (b) circumferential position of the ASCT3

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Fig. 19

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT2: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT2 and SW, and (b) efficiency of the ASCT2

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Fig. 20

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT2-1: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT2-1, CT, and SW, (b) efficiency of the ASCT2-1 and CT, and (c) efficiency of the ASCT2-1 and SW

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Fig. 21

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT3: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT3 and SW, and (b) efficiency of the ASCT3 and SW

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Fig. 22

Compressor characteristics of the ASCT3-1: (a) pressure ratio of the ASCT3-1, ASCT2-1, and CT, and (b) efficiency of the ASCT3-1, ASCT2-1, and CT

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Fig. 23

Circumferential variation of static pressure distribution of the CT, ASCT2-1, and ASCT3-1 at 1.14R3

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