Research Papers

Flow Measurements in a First Stage Nozzle Cascade Having Endwall Contouring, Leakage, and Assembly Features

[+] Author and Article Information
T. W. Simon

e-mail: tsimon@me.umn.edu
Heat Transfer Laboratory
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

The slashface (or mid-passage) gap is a gap at the junction between two vane castings on the endwall. It can be seen in Fig. 1.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 10, 2007; final manuscript received August 30, 2011; published online October 18, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(1), 011002 (Oct 18, 2012) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-07-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4006419 History: Received September 10, 2007; Revised August 30, 2011

This work supports new gas turbine designs for improved performance by evaluating the use of endwall contouring in a cascade that is representative of a first stage stator passage. Contouring accelerates the flow, reducing the thickness of the endwall inlet boundary layer to the turbine stage and reducing the strength of secondary flows within the passage. The reduction in secondary flows leads to less mixing in the endwall region. This allows for an improved cooling of the endwall and airfoil surfaces with injected and leakage flows. The present paper documents the component misalignment and injected and leakage flow effects on the aerodynamic losses within a passage that has one contoured and one straight endwall. Steps and injected flows within the passage can lead to thicker endwall boundary layers, stronger secondary flows, and possibly additional vortex structures in the passage. The paper compares losses with various steps, gaps, and leakage flows to assess their importance in this contoured passage. In particular, features associated with the combustor-to-turbine transition piece and the slashface on the vane platform are addressed. An n-factorial study is used to quantify the importance of such effects on aerodynamic losses.

© 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Herzig, H. Z., Hansen, A. G., and Costello, G. R., 1954, “A Visualization Study of Secondary Flows in Cascades,” NACA Report No. 1163.
Pierce, F. S., and M. D., Harsh, 1985, “Three-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation at the Junction of a Streamlined Cylinder With a Flat Plate,” Flow Visualization III, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Hemisphere , Washington DC, pp. 331–335.
Eckerle, W. A., and L. S., Langston, 1987, “Horseshoe Vortex Formation Around a Cylinder,” ASME J. Turbomach.109, pp. 278–285. [CrossRef]
Pierce, F. J., and Shin, J., 1992, “The Development of a Turbulent Junction Vortex System,” ASME Trans. J. Fluids Eng., 114(4), pp. 559–65. [CrossRef]
Goldstein, R. J., and Karni, J., 1984, “The Effect of a Wall Boundary Layer on Local Mass Transfer From a Cylinder in Crossflow,” ASME Trans. J. Heat Transfer, 106, pp. 260–267. [CrossRef]
Langston, L. S., Nice, M. L., and Hooper, R. M., 1977, “Three-Dimensional Flow Within a Turbine Cascade Passage,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 99, pp. 21–28. [CrossRef]
Langston, L. S., 1980, “Crossflow in a Turbine Cascade Passage,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 10, pp. 866–874. [CrossRef]
Chung, J. T., and Simon, T. W., 1990, “Three-Dimensional Flow Near the Blade/Endwall Junction of a Gas Turbine. Visualization in a Large-Scale Cascade Simulator,” ASME Paper No. 90-WA/HT-4.
Deich, M. E., Zaryankin, A. D., Filippov, G. A., and Zatsepin, N. F., 1960, “Method of Increasing the Efficiency of Turbine Stages With Short Blades,” Translation No. 2816, Associated Electrical Industries (Manchester) Limited.
Morris, A. W. H., and Hoare, R. G., 1975. “Secondary Loss Measurements in a Cascade of Turbine Blades With Meridional Wall Profiling,” ASME Paper No. 75-WA/GT-13.
Kopper, F. C., Milano, R., and Vanco, M., 1981, “Experimental Investigation of Endwall Profiling in a Turbine Vane Cascade,” AIAA J., 19(8), pp. 1033–1040. [CrossRef]
Boletis, E., 1985, “Effects of Tip Endwall Contouring on the Three-Dimensional Flow Field in an Annular Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane—Part 1: Experimental Investigation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 983–990. [CrossRef]
Arts, T., 1985, “Effects of Tip Endwall Contouring on the Three-Dimensional Flow Field in an Annular Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane—Part 2: Numerical Investigation,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-108.
Dossena, V., Perdichizzi, A., and Savini, M., 1999, “The Influence of Endwall Contouring on the Performance of a Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 121, pp. 200–208. [CrossRef]
Burd, S. W., and Simon, T. W., 2000, “Flow Measurements in a Nozzle Guide Vane Passage With a Low Aspect Ratio and Endwall Contouring,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0213.
Sauer, H., Muller, R., and Vogeler, K., 2001, “Reduction of Secondary Flow Losses in Turbine Cascades by Leading Edge Modifications at the Endwall,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 123, pp. 207–213. [CrossRef]
Becz, S., Majewski, M. S., and Langston, L. S., 2003, “Leading Edge Modification Effects on Turbine Cascade Endwall Loss,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38898. [CrossRef]
Becz, S., Majewski, M. S., and Langston, L. S., 2004, “An Experimental Investigation of Contoured Leading Edges for Secondary Flow Loss Reduction,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53964. [CrossRef]
Blair, M. F., 1974, “An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling on Large-Scale Turbine Endwalls,” ASME Trans. J. Heat Transfer, 96, pp. 524–529. [CrossRef]
Granser, D., and Schulenberg, T., 1990, “Prediction and Measurement of Film Cooling Effectiveness for a First-Stage Turbine Vane Shroud,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-95.
Goldman, L. J., and McLallin, K. L., 1977, “Effects of Endwall Cooling on Secondary Flows in Turbine Stator Vanes,” Proceedings of the 49th Meeting of the AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Panel, The Hague, The Netherlands. March 28–30, Paper No. AGARD-CPP-214.
Sieverding, C. H., and Wilputte, P., 1980, “Influence of Mach Number and Endwall Cooling on Secondary Flows in a Straight Nozzle Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 80-GT-52.
Barigozzi, G., Franchini, G., Perdichizzi, A., and Quattrore, M., 2010, “Endwall Film Cooling Effects on Secondary Flows in a Contoured Endwall Nozzle Vane,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 132, p. 041005. [CrossRef]
Biesinger, T. E., and Gregory-Smith, D. G., 1993. “Reduction in Secondary Flows and Losses in a Turbine Cascade by Upstream Boundary Layer Blowing,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-114.
Ghosh, K., and Goldstein, R. J., 2011, “Effect of Inlet Skew on Heat/Mass Transfer from a Simulated Turbine Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46543. [CrossRef]
Friedrichs, S., Hodson, H. P., and Dawes, W. N., 1995, “Distribution of Film Cooling Effectiveness on a Turbine Endwall Measured Using the Ammonia and Diazo Technique,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-1.
Friedrichs, S., Hodson, H. P., and Dawes, W. N., 1997, “Aerodynamic Aspects of Endwall Film-Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119(4), pp. 786–793. [CrossRef]
Kost, F., and Nicklas, M., 2001, “Film-Cooled Turbine Endwall in a Transonic Flow Field—Part I: Aerodynamic Measurements,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 123, pp. 709–719. [CrossRef]
Knost, D. G., and Thole, K. A., 2003, “Computational Predictions of Endwall Film-Cooling for a First Stage Vane,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38252. [CrossRef]
Yamao, H., Aoki, S., Takeishi, K., and Takeda, K., 1987, “An Experimental Study for Endwall Cooling Design of Turbine Vanes,” Paper No. 87-TOKYO-IGTC-67.
Hada, S., and Thole, K. A., 2011, “Computational Study of a Midpassage Gap and Upstream Slot on Vane Endwall Film-Cooling,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 133, p. 011024. [CrossRef]
Aunapu, N. V., Volino, R. J., Flack, K. A., and Stoddard, R. M., 2000, “Secondary Flow Measurements in a Turbine Passage With Endwall Flow Modification,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0212.
Simon, T., and Piggush, J., 2006, “Turbine Endwall Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer,” AIAA J. Power Propul., 22, pp. 301–312. [CrossRef]
Ames, F. E., 1994, “Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Level of Turbulence,” NASA Report No. CR-4633.
Oke, R. A., Simon, T. W., Shih, T., Zhu, B., Lin, L., and Chyu, M., 2001, “Measurements Over a Film-Cooled, Contoured Endwall With Various Coolant Injection Rates,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0140.
Zhu, B., Lin, Y-L., Shih, T. I.-P., Oke, R. A., Simon, T. W., and Chyu, K., 2001, “Computational Study of a Two-Passage Turbine Guide-Vane Cascade With End-Wall Contouring,” ASME Computers and Information Engineering Conference, Paper No. DETC-CIE-21762.
Simon, T. W., and Goldstein, R. J., 1996, “Instrumentation for Fluid Dynamics—Pressure Measurements,” Handbook of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid Machinery, Wiley, New York.
Burd, S. W., and Simon, T. W., 2000, “Effects of Slot Bleed Injection Over a Contoured End Wall on Nozzle Guide Vane Cooling Performance—Part I: Flow Field Measurements,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-199.
Chung, J. T., and T. W., Simon. 1991, Three-Dimensional Flow Near the Blade/Endwall Junction of a Gas Turbine: Application of a Boundary Layer Fence,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-45.
Piggush, J. D., and Simon, T. W., 2005, “Flow Measurements in a First Stage Nozzle Cascade Having Leakage and Assembly Features: Effects of Endwall Steps and Leakage on Aerodynamic Losses” ASME Paper No. IMECE2005-83032. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Vane static pressure profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Velocity (m/s), turbulence intensity, and velocity rms values at plane x/Cax= − 0.1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Velocity (m/s), turbulence intensity, and velocity rms values at plane x/Cax = −1.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Pressure loss profile (ΔP0) for the nominal passage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Slashface step and gap geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Transition section step and gap geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Pressure loss (ΔP) profile for the smooth passage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Endwall curvature of selected studies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pressure loss (ΔP0) profile for case 4, Table 7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Slashface blowing static pressure, velocity ratio, and momentum flux ratio



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In