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Research Papers

Experimental Comparison of DBD Plasma Actuators for Low Reynolds Number Separation Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher R. Marks

e-mail: christopher.marks@udri.udayton.edu

Rolf Sondergaard

e-mail: rolf.sondergaard@wpafb.af.mil

Mitch Wolff

e-mail: james.wolff2@wpafb.af.mil

Rich Anthony

e-mail: richard.anthony@wpafb.af.mil
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory,
Propulsion Directorate,
AFRL/RZTT Bldg 18,
1950 Fifth St.,
Wright Patterson Air Force Base,
OH, 45433

1Currently at the University of Dayton Research Institute, Aerospace Mechanics Division, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH, 45469-0110.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 20, 2011; final manuscript received August 31, 2011; published online October 30, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

This material is declared a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Turbomach 135(1), 011024 (Oct 30, 2012) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1154; doi: 10.1115/1.4006517 History: Received July 20, 2011; Revised August 31, 2011

This paper presents experimental work comparing several Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator configurations for low Reynolds number separation control. Actuators studied here are being investigated for use in a closed loop separation control system. The plasma actuators were fabricated in the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate’s thin film laboratory and applied to a low Reynolds number airfoil that exhibits similar suction surface behavior to those observed on Low Pressure (LP) Turbine blades. In addition to typical asymmetric arrangements producing downstream jets, one electrode configurations was designed to produce an array of off axis jets, and one produced a spanwise array of linear vertical jets in order to generate vorticity and improved boundary layer to freestream mixing. The actuators were installed on an airfoil and their performance compared by flow visualization, surface stress sensitive film (S3F), and drag measurements. The experimental data provides a clear picture of the potential utility of each design. Experiments were carried out at four Reynolds numbers, 1.4 × 105, 1.0 × 105, 6.0 × 104, and 5.0 × 104 at a-1.5 deg angle of attack. Data was taken at the AFRL Propulsion Directorate’s Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) facility.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Asymmetric configuration of DBD plasma actuator

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Fig. 2

Visualization of the induced velocity generated by a DBD plasma actuator single asymmetric electrode configuration. Top image: actuator off. Bottom image: actuator on. Flow is from left to right.

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Fig. 3

DBD plasma actuator electrode configurations

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Fig. 4

Modified E387 airfoil showing S3F mounting

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Fig. 5

Flow visualization over the E387 suction surface from Cx = 65% to trailing edge with DBD-01 installed. Image (a) is at Re = 5 × 104, Image (b) is at Re = 1.0 × 105.

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Fig. 6

Suction surface Cp distribution with plasma actuators

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Fig. 7

Mean suction surface separation and reattachment points for each plasma actuator configuration tested powered off

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Fig. 8

Suction surface Cp distribution and wake profile for each plasma actuator tested at 5 × 104. Column (a): DBD-01, (b): DBD-02, (c): DBD-03.

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Fig. 9

S3F measured surface tangential displacement of airfoil with DBD-01 installed. Flow speed is Re = 5 × 104 with various plasma actuator voltages.

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Fig. 10

S3F streamwise disp. at Re = 5 × 104 and various plasma actuator voltages. Plot (a): DBD-01, (b): DBD-02, (c): DBD-03.

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Fig. 11

S3F tangential displacement of DBD-02 at Re = 1.0 × 105 for top: actuator off, bottom: 7.2 kVpp

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Fig. 12

S3F tangential displacement at Re = 1.0 × 105 and various plasma actuator voltages. Plot (a): DBD-01, (b): DBD-02, (c): DBD-03.

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Fig. 13

Suction surface Cp distribution and wake profile for each plasma actuator tested at 1.0 × 105. Column (a): DBD-01, (b): DBD-02, (c): DBD-03.

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Fig. 14

S3F indicated shifts in mean reattachment locations with increase in voltage

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Fig. 15

Drag of each actuator tested

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Fig. 16

Flow visualization of plasma actuator DBD-01 at the trailing edge from Cx = 65% to 101% at a Re = 5 × 104. Image (a): actuator off, (b): 5.6 kVpp, (c): 7.2 kVpp.

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Fig. 17

Flow visualization showing spanwise coherent unsteadiness generated by the vertical jets of DBD-02 with Re = 5 × 104. Top: actuator off, bottom: actuator voltage 7.2 kVpp. View is from approximately Cx = 30% to 60%.

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Fig. 18

Flow visualization of plasma actuator DBD-03 at the trailing edge from Cx = 70% to 101% at a Re = 5 × 104. Image (a): actuator off, (b): 4.8 kVpp, (c): 7.2 kVpp.

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Fig. 19

Flow visualization of airfoil with plasma actuator DBD-03 installed. Suction surface near trailing edge is shown at Re = 1.0 × 105. Image (a): actuator off, (b): 7.3 kVpp.

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