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Research Papers

A Method to Estimate the Performance Map of a Centrifugal Compressor Stage

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Casey

e-mail: casey@itsm.uni-stuttgart.de

Chris Robinson

e-mail: chris.robinson@pcaeng.co.uk
PCA Engineers Limited,
Studio 2, Deepdale Enterprise Park,
Deepdale Lane,
Nettleham, Lincoln LN2 2LL, UK

1Also at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 5, 2011; final manuscript received October 17, 2011; published online November 8, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(2), 021034 (Nov 08, 2012) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1200; doi: 10.1115/1.4006590 History: Received September 05, 2011; Revised October 17, 2011

A novel approach to calculate the performance map of a centrifugal compressor stage is presented. At the design point four nondimensional parameters (the flow coefficient φ, the work coefficient λ, the tip-speed Mach number M, and the efficiency η) characterize the performance. In the new method the performance of the whole map is also based on these four parameters through physically based algebraic equations which require little prior knowledge of the detailed geometry. The variable empirical coefficients in the parameterized equations can be calibrated to match the performance maps of a wide range of stage types, including turbocharger and process compressor impellers with vaned and vaneless diffusers. The examples provided show that the efficiency and the pressure ratio performance maps of turbochargers with vaneless diffusers can be predicted to within ±2% in this way. More uncertainty is present in the prediction of the surge line, as this is very variable from stage to stage. During the preliminary design the method provides a useful reference performance map based on earlier experience for comparison with objectives at different speeds and flows.

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References

Swain, E., 2005, “Improving a One-Dimensional Centrifugal Compressor Performance Prediction Method,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 219, pp. 653–659. [CrossRef]
Aungier, R. H., 2000, Centrifugal Compressors—A Strategy for Aerodynamic Design and Analysis, ASME, New York.
Oh, H. W., Yoon, E. S., and Chung, M. K., 1997, “An Optimum Set of Loss Models for Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Compressors,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 211, pp. 331–338. [CrossRef]
Cumpsty, N. A., 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Group, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UK.
Rodgers, C., 1964, “Typical Performance Characteristics of Gas Turbine Radial Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 86, pp. 161–175. [CrossRef]
Swain, E., 1990, “A Simple Method for Predicting Centrifugal Compressor Performance Characteristics,” Proceedings of IMechE Conference, C405/040.
Casey, M. V., 1994, “Computational Methods for Preliminary Design and Geometry Definition in Turbomachinery,” AGARD-LS-195, AGARD Lecture Series on Turbomachinery Design using CFD, NASA-Lewis.
Lohmberg, A., Casey, M., and Ammann, S., 2003, “Transonic Radial Compressor Inlet Design,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 217, pp. 367–374. [CrossRef]
Casey, M. V., and Schlegel, M., 2010, “Estimation of the Performance of Turbocharger Compressors at Extremely Low Pressure Ratios,” Proc. IMechE Part A, 224, pp.239–250. [CrossRef]
Gülich, J. F., (2007), Centrifugal Pumps, Springer, Berlin.
Casey, M. V., and Fesich, T. M., 2010, “The Efficiency of Turbocharger Compressors With Diabatic Flows,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132, p.072302. [CrossRef]
Daily, J. W., and Nece, R. E., 1960, “Chamber Dimension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 82, pp.217–232. [CrossRef]
Baines, N. C., 2005, Fundamentals of Turbocharging, Concepts/NREC, West River Junction, VT.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Variation of efficiency ratio with the ratio of the flow coefficient relative to that at choke for a range of tip-speed Mach numbers

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Fig. 2

Variation of efficiency ratio with the ratio of the flow coefficient relative to that at peak efficiency for a range of tip-speed Mach numbers

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Fig. 3

Ratio of the flow coefficient at peak efficiency to that at choke over a range of tip-speed Mach number

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Fig. 4

Normalized efficiency ratio of a vaneless turbocharger stage using Eqs. (5), (6), (7), and (8) compared with test data at different tip-speed Mach numbers

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Fig. 5

Ratio of the flow coefficient at peak efficiency to that at choke over a range of tip-speed Mach number for turbocharger compressor stages with a vaneless diffuser

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Fig. 6

Ratio of the flow coefficient at peak efficiency to that at low speed over a range of tip-speed Mach number for vaneless stages. Turbocharger compressor stages shown as a dashed line and open symbols and process compressor stages shown as a full line and full symbols.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Ratio of peak efficiency to that at design over a range of tip-speed Mach number for stages with vaneless diffusers, with and without the correction for heat transfer effect

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Fig. 8

Variation of work coefficient with flow and tip-speed Mach number for a turbocharger stage with a vaneless diffuser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of the ratio of the flow coefficient at instability with that at choke for vaneless turbocharger stages (φsc). The open symbols are stages with inlet bleed recirculation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flow coefficient—Mach number diagram for turbocharger compressors with a vaneless diffuser

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Fig. 11

Flow coefficient—Mach number diagram for turbocharger compressors with vaned diffusers

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Fig. 12

Predicted and measured pressure ratio performance map for a turbocharger with a vaneless diffuser over a wide range of rotational speeds. The coefficients used are derived from an analysis of many stages, including this one.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Predicted and measured efficiency performance map for a turbocharger with a vaneless diffuser over a wide range of rotational speeds. The coefficients used are derived from an analysis of many stages, including this one, and a correction for the effect of heat transfer at low speeds is made. Symbols as in Fig. 12.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Predicted and measured pressure ratio performance map for a turbocharger with high back-sweep over a wide range of rotational speeds. This stage was not used to derive the correlations used here.

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