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Research Papers

Analysis of Axial Compressor Stall Inception Using Unsteady Casing Pressure Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Joshua D. Cameron

e-mail: j.cameron@nd.edu

Scott C. Morris

Hessert Laboratory for Aerospace Research,
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 20, 2011; final manuscript received November 4, 2011; published online November 8, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(2), 021036 (Aug 11, 2012) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1211; doi: 10.1115/1.4006777 History: Received September 20, 2011; Revised November 04, 2011

The unsteady flow in axial compressors during pre-stall and stall inception is often studied using circumferentially distributed pressure sensors. The present investigation utilized a transonic axial compressor facility to acquire time resolved casing static pressure measurements at an axial location upstream of the rotor leading edge. These measurements were processed using a variety of analysis techniques in order to provide insight into the fluid dynamics and compression system dynamics prior to and during stall inception. Specifically, visual inspection of the time series, spatial Fourier decomposition, traveling wave energy, and wavelet transform results will be described and compared for two representative stall inception events. Additionally, a new method was developed based on a windowed, two-point correlation function between adjacent sensors. The intent was to provide a scalar function that was nonzero only when disturbances that rotated around the compressor annulus in the direction of the rotor’s rotation were present. The results indicated that this method highlights many detailed features of the rotating disturbances with both spatial and temporal resolution during both pre-stall and stall inception.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Total to static pressure ratio characteristic for ND-stage 01 at 70% and 100% corrected speed

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Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental setup illustrating the location of casing pressure transducers (numbered) and the location of the optical window

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Fig. 3

Casing static pressure traces during stall inception, event A, (a) as acquired (plotted with smaller pressure scale than (b), (c), and (d)), (b) low-pass filtered at 15N, (c) low-pass filtered at 5N, (d) low-pass filtered at 1N

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Fig. 4

Casing static pressure traces during stall inception, event B, (a) as acquired (plotted at smaller pressure scale than (b), (c), and (d)), (b) low-pass filtered at 15N, (c) low-pass filtered at 5N, (d) low-pass filtered at 1N

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Fig. 5

Discrete spatial fourier series first mode phase, event A, (a) low-pass filtered at 5N, (b) low-pass filtered at 0.75N, (c) low-pass filtered at 5N (unwrapped), (d) low-pass Filtered at 0.75N (unwrapped)

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Fig. 6

Discrete spatial fourier series first mode phase, event B, (a) low-pass filtered at 5N, (b) low-pass filtered at 0.75N, (c) low-pass filtered at 5N (unwrapped), (d) low-pass filtered at 0.75N (unwrapped)

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Fig. 7

Traveling wave energy surface for first spatial fourier mode, event A

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Fig. 8

Traveling wave energy surface for first spatial fourier mode, event B

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Fig. 9

Morlet wavelet spectrogram traces for stall event A

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Fig. 10

Morlet wavelet spectrogram traces for stall event B

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Fig. 11

Illustration of windowed cross correlation technique, (a) low-pass filtered (12N) casing pressure stall inception traces, (b) windowed cross correlation functions corresponding to the windows in (a)

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Fig. 12

χ Traces, stall event A (a) large correlation window, (b) small correlation window

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Fig. 13

χ traces, stall event B (a) large correlation window, (b) small correlation window

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Fig. 14

χ contour plot, (a) pre-stall event A (b) pre-stall event B, the location of the distortion screen is indicated at the left of the figure

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Fig. 15

Sensitivity of χ to low-pass filtering, stall event B, (a) large window, no low-pass filter, (b) large window, low-pass filter 1N, (c) small window, No low-pass filter, (d) small window, low-pass filter 1N

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