0
Research Papers

Two- and Three-Dimensional Prescribed Surface Curvature Distribution Blade Design (CIRCLE) Method for the Design of High Efficiency Turbines, Compressors, and Isolated Airfoils

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Korakianitis

e-mail: korakianitis@alum.mit.edu

M. A. Rezaienia

Parks College of Engineering,
Aviation and Technology,
Saint Louis University,
St. Louis, MO 63103

I. A. Hamakhan

Mechanical Department,
College of Engineering,
University of Salahaddien-Hawler,
Kurdistan

A. P. S. Wheeler

Engineering and the Environment,
University of Southampton,
Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received July 11, 2011; final manuscript received July 30, 2012; published online June 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(4), 041002 (Jun 03, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1124; doi: 10.1115/1.4007443 History: Received July 11, 2011; Revised July 30, 2012

The prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE) method is presented for the design of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) blades for axial compressors and turbines, and isolated blades or airfoils. The original axial turbine blade design method is improved, allowing it to use any leading-edge (LE) and trailing-edge (TE) shapes, such as circles and ellipses. The method to connect these LE and TE shapes to the remaining blade surfaces with curvature and slope of curvature continuity everywhere along the streamwise blade length, while concurrently overcoming the “wiggle” problems of higher-order polynomials is presented. This allows smooth surface pressure distributions, and easy integration of the CIRCLE method in heuristic blade-optimization methods. The method is further extended to 2D and 3D compressor blades and isolated airfoil geometries providing smooth variation of key blade parameters such as inlet and outlet flow angles, stagger angle, throat diameter, LE and TE radii, etc. from hub to tip. One sample 3D turbine blade geometry is presented. The efficacy of the method is examined by redesigning select blade geometries and numerically evaluating pressure-loss reduction at design and off-design conditions from the original blades: two typical 2D turbine blades; two typical 2D compressor blades; and one typical 2D isolated airfoil blade geometries are redesigned and evaluated with this method. Further extension of the method for centrifugal or mixed-flow impeller geometries is a coordinate transformation. It is concluded that the CIRCLE method is a robust tool for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery blades.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Massardo, A. F., and Scialò, M., 2000, “Thermoeconomic Analysis of Gas Turbine Based Cycles,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 122, pp. 664–671. [CrossRef]
Massardo, A., and Satta, A., 1990, “Axial-Flow Compressor Design Optimization. 1. Pitchline Analysis and Multivariable Objective Function Influence,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112(3), pp. 399–404. [CrossRef]
Massardo, A., Satta, A., and Marini, M., 1990, “Axial-Flow Compressor Design Optimization. 2. Throughflow Analysis,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112(3), pp. 405–410. [CrossRef]
Pachidis, V., Pilidis, P., Talhouarn, F., Kalfas, A., and Templalexis, I., 2006, “A Fully Integrated Approach to Component Zooming Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 128(3), pp. 579–584. [CrossRef]
Meauze, G., 1989. “Overview on Blading Design Methods,” Blading Design for Axial Turbomachines (AGARD Lecture Series 167), AGARD-LS-167, AGARD, France.
Stow, P., 1989, “Blading Design for Multi-Stage HP Compressors,” Blading Design for Axial Turbomachines (AGARD Lecture Series 167), AGARD-LS-167, AGARD.
Bry, P. F., 1989, “Blading Design for Cooled High-Pressure Turbines,” Blading Design for Axial Turbomachines (AGARD Lecture Series 167), AGARD-LS-167, AGARD.
Steinert, W., Eisenberg, B., and Starken, H., 1991, “Design and Testing of a Controlled Diffusion Airfoil Cascade for Industrial Axial Flow Compressor Application,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 583–590. [CrossRef]
Selig, M. S., 1994, “Multipoint Inverse Design of an Infinite Cascade of Airfoils,” AIAA J., 32(4), pp. 774–782. [CrossRef]
Dang, T., Damle, S., and Qiu, X., 2000, “Euler-Based Inverse Method for Turbomachine Blades, Part 2: Three-Dimensional Flows,” AIAA J., 38(11), pp. 2007–2013. [CrossRef]
Phillipsen, B., 2005, “A Simple Inverse Cascade Design Method,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68575.
Liu, G.-L., 2000, “A New Generation of Inverse Shape Design Problem in Aerodynamics and Aero-Thermoelasticity: Concepts, Theory and Methods,” Int. J. Aircraft Eng. Aerosp. Technol., 72(4), pp. 334–344. [CrossRef]
Kim, H., Koc, S., and Nakahashi, K., 2005, “Surface Modification Method for Aerodynamic Design Optimization,” AIAA J., 43(4), pp. 727–740. [CrossRef]
Samad, A., and Kim, K. Y., 2008, “Stacking and Thickness Optimization of a Compressor Blade Using Weighted Average Surrogate Model,” Proceedings of the 53rd ASME Turbo Expo 2008, Berlin, Germany, June 9–13, ASME Paper No. GT2008-50262, Vol. 6, Pt. A, pp. 2183–2195. [CrossRef]
Samad, A., and Kim, K. Y., 2008, “Shape Optimization of an Axial Compressor Blade by Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm,” Proc. Instit. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Energy, 222(A6), pp. 599–611. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., Choi, J. H., and Kim, K. Y., 2009, “Design Optimization of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller Using Radial Basis Neural Network Method,” Proceedings of the 54th ASME Turbo Expo 2009, Orlando, FL, June 8–12, ASME Paper No. GT2009-59666, Vol. 7, Pts. A and B, pp. 443–451. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., Choi, J. H., Husain, A., and Kim, K. Y., 2010. “Performance Enhancement of Axial Fan Blade Through Multi-Objective Optimization Techniques,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 24(10), pp. 2059–2066. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., Ahn, H. J., and Kim, K. Y., 2010, “High-Efficiency Design of a Mixed-Flow Pump,” Sci. China Technol. Sci., 53(1), pp. 24–27. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., 1987, “A Design Method for the Prediction of Unsteady Forces on Subsonic, Axial Gas-Turbine Blades,” Sc.D. dissertation in Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Korakianitis, T., 1989, “Design of Airfoils and Cascades of Airfoils,” AIAA J., 27(4), pp. 455–461. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., 1993, “Hierarchical Development of Three Direct-Design Methods for Two-Dimensional Axial-Turbomachinery Cascades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(2), pp. 314–324. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., 1993, “Prescribed-Curvature Distribution Airfoils for the Preliminary Geometric Design of Axial Turbomachinery Cascades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(2), pp. 325–333. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., and Papagiannidis, P., 1993, “Surface-Curvature-Distribution Effects on Turbine-Cascade Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(2), pp. 334–341. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., and Wegge, B. H., 2002, “Three Dimensional Direct Turbine Blade Design Method,” AIAA 32nd Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, St. Louis, MO, June, AIAA Paper No. 2002-3347.
Hamakhan, I. A., and Korakianitis, T., 2010, “Aerodynamic Performance Effects of Leading Edge Geometry in Gas Turbine Blades,” Appl. Energy, 87(5), pp. 1591–1601. [CrossRef]
Wheeler, A. P. S., Sofia, A., and Miller, R. J., 2009, “The Effect of Leading-Edge Geometry on Wake Interactions in Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(4), p. 041013. [CrossRef]
Goodhand, M. N., and Miller, R. J., 2011, “Compressor Leading Edge Spikes: A New Performance Criterion,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Okapuu, U., 1974, “Some Results From Tests on a High Work Axial Gas Generator Turbine,” ASME Paper No. 74-GT-81.
Gostelow, J. P., 1976, “A New Approach to the Experimental Study of Turbomachinery Flow Phenomena,” ASME Paper No. 76-GT-47.
Wagner, J. H., Dring, R. P., and Joslyn, H. D., 1984, “Inlet Boundary Layer Effects in an Axial Compressor Rotor: Part 1—Blade-to-Blade Effects,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-84.
Sharma, O. P., Pickett, G. F., and Ni, R. H., 1990, “Assessment of Unsteady Flows in Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-150.
Hourmouziadis, J., Buckl, F., and Bergmann, P., 1987, “The Development of the Profile Boundary Layer in a Turbine Environment,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(2), pp. 286–295. [CrossRef]
Hodson, H. P., and Dominy, R. G., 1987, “Three-Dimensional Flow in a Low Pressure Turbine Cascade at Its Design Condition,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(2), pp. 177–185. [CrossRef]
Hodson, H. P., and Dominy, R. G., 1987, “The Off-Design Performance of a Low-Pressure Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(2), pp. 201–209. [CrossRef]
Hodson, H. P., 1985, “Boundary-Layer Transition and Separation Near the Leading Edge of a High-Speed Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 127–134. [CrossRef]
Corral, R., and Pastor, G., 2004, “Parametric Design of Turbomachinery Airfoils Using Highly Differentiable Splines,” J. Propul. Power, 20(2), pp. 335–343. [CrossRef]
Wilson, D. G., and Korakianitis, T., 1998, The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Walraevens, R. E., and Cumpsty, N. A., 1995, “Leading Edge Separation Bubbles on Turbomachine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 115–125. [CrossRef]
Kiock, R., Lehthaus, F., Baines, N. C., and Sieverding, C. H., 1986, “The Transonic Flow Through a Turbine Cascade as Measured in Four European Wind Tunnels,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(2), pp. 277–284. [CrossRef]
Elazar, Y., and Shreeve, R. P., 1990, “Viscous Flow in a Controlled Diffusion Compressor Cascade With Increasing Incidence,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 256–265. [CrossRef]
McGhee, R. J., and Walker, B. S., 1988, “Experimental Results for the Eppler 387 Airfoil at Low Renolds Numbers in the Langley Low Pressure Turbine Tunnel,” NASA-TM-4062.
Korakianitis, T., Hamakhan, I. A., Rezaienia, M. A., Wheeler, A. P. S., Avital, E. J., and Williams, J. J. R., 2012, “Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery Blades for Energy Conversion Devices With the Three-Dimensional Prescribed Surface Curvature Distribution Blade Design (CIRCLE) Method,” Appl. Energy, 89(1), pp. 215–227. [CrossRef]
Korakianitis, T., Rezaienia, M. A., Hamakhan, I. A., Avital, E. J., and Williams, J. J. R., 2011, “Aerodynamic Improvements of Wind-Turbine Airfoil Geometries With the Prescribed Surface Curvature Distribution Blade Design (CIRCLE) Method,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(8), p. 082601. [CrossRef]
Buche, D., Guidati, G., and Stoll, P., 2003, “Automated Design Optimization of Compressor Blades for Stationary, Large-Scale Turbomachinery,” Proceedings the ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea and Air, Atlanta, GA, June 13–16.
Sieverding, F., Ribi, B., Casey, M., and Meyer, M., 2004, “Design of Industrial Axial Compressor Blade Sections for Optimal Range and Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(2), pp. 323–331. [CrossRef]
Li, H.-D., He, L., Li, Y. S., and Wells, R., 2006, “Blading Aerodynamics Design Optimization With Mechanical and Aeromechanical Constraints,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Barcelona, Spain, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. GT2006-90503. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. S., Kim, K. Y., and Samad, A., 2008, “Design Optimization of Low-Speed Axial Flow Fan Blade With Three-Dimensional RANS Analysis,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 22, pp. 1864–1869. [CrossRef]
Chen, B., and Yuan, X., 2008, “Advanced Aerodynamic Optimization System for Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130, p. 021005. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

2D and 3D blade geometry definition (adapted from [22,24,24])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Modification for the 2D compressor blade design method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Modification for the 2D isolated airfoil blade design method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of original HD blade (from [33-35]) with redesigned I1 and I9 blades (adapted from [25])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of original Kiock blade (from [39]) with redesigned S1 blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Isentropic surface Mach number distributions of the bladerow of Fig. 1(f) at z'=0.1,0.5,0.9 at design point αin=0 deg and at incidence ±5 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of MAN GHH 1-S1 (Steinert, from [8]) with C1 and C2 compressor blades at various incidences

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of Sanger (from [40]) and C3 compressor blades at design point incidence

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of Eppler 387 (from [41]) and A1 isolated airfoils

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In